The same Hebrew word is rendered by our translators, crystal, Eze 1:22; frost, Ge 31:40; and ice, Job 6:16. The word primarily denotes ice; and the name is given to a perfectly transparent and glass-like gem, from its resemblance, Job 28:17; Re 4:6; 21:11.
(Eze 1:22, with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Re 4:6; 21:11; 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally "ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.
zekukith, from zaakak, "to be pure." Job 28:17; "the gold and the crystal cannot equal wisdom." Glass is meant, some costly goblet composed of glass and gold, such as Wilkinson says the Egyptians made (Ancient Egyptians 2:61). Kerach, literally, ice, the ancients believing rock crystal to be ice intensely congealed. In Eze 1:22, "the likeness of the firmament was as the terrible (rather Splendid, dazzling) crystal" (Re 4:6; 21:11).
1. zekukith, Job 28:17: probably glass highly ornamented, such as was made in Egypt: it is here classed with gold; but wisdom, the gift of God, far exceeds such things in value.
2. qerach, ice, and so frequently translated. The firmament over the living creature was "as the colour of the terrible crystal." Eze 1:22.
3. ?????????? John saw a sea of glass like unto crystal, Re 4:6; the water of life and the jasper stone were seen 'clear as crystal.' Re 22:1. The ancient glass may have been 'clear' in the sense of not having spots and blemishes, without its being wholly transparent.
the representative in the Authorized Version of two Hebrew words.
1. Zecucith occurs only in
where "glass" probably is intended.
2. kerach occurs in numerous passages in the Old Testament to denote "ice," "frost," etc.; but once only
as is generally understood, to signify "crystal." The ancients supposed rock-crystal to be merely ice congealed by intense cold. The similarity of appearance between ice and crystal caused no doubt the identity of the terms to express these substances. The Greek word occurs in
It may mean either "ice" or "crystal."
CRYSTAL, ???. This word is translated "crystal" in Eze 1:22; and "frost," Ge 31:40; Job 37:10; Jer 36:30; and "ice," Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps 147:17; ??????????, Re 4:6; 22:1. Crystal is supposed to have its name from its resemblance to ice. The Greek word, ??????????, is formed from ?????, ice, and ???????????, to concrete. The word, ??????, is translated crystal, in Job 28:17. Dr. Good observes, "We are not certain of the exact signification, farther than that it denotes some perfectly transparent and hyaline gem."