2 Now these are the names of the twelve (a)apostles (special messengers, personally chosen representatives): first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew, his brother; (b)James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;(A) 3 Philip and Bartholomew (Nathanael); Thomas and Matthew (Levi) the tax collector; (c)James the son of (d)Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus (Judas, not Iscariot); 4 Simon the Cananaean (Zealot), and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Him.
a. Matthew 10:2: In general usage the word “apostle” (Gr apostolos) means “sent one” or “messenger.” In this passage and others in reference to the “twelve,” the word “apostles” is used in a technical sense of the twelve disciples, and later Paul, whom Jesus chose. An apostle was one who witnessed Christ’s resurrection (Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Cor 9:1, 2). They validated their apostleship by performing “signs and wonders and miracles” (2 Cor 12:12), and were the foundation of the church.
b. Matthew 10:2: It is believed that Salome, Zebedee’s wife and the mother of James and John was a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
c. Matthew 10:3: Also known as James the Less or James the Younger. It is believed that his mother, Mary (Gr Maria), was a sister or sister-in-law of Mary, the mother of Jesus (John 19:25).
d. Matthew 10:3: Possibly the Hebrew or Syriac name of the same person: Clopas. He may be the “Cleopas” mentioned in Luke 24:18.