An ancient city in the plain of Judah, southwest of Jerusalem, Ge 38:1; Jos 15:35. Its king was slain by Joshua, Jos 12:15. It was one of the cities rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:7; Mic 1:15, and was reoccupied by the Jews after the captivity, Ne 11:30.
When David withdrew from Achish, king of Gath, he retired to the "cave of Adullam," 1Sa 22:1; 2Sa 23:13. The location of this cave, however, is uncertain. Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers. It is capable of holding thousands.
one of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma (Jos 12:15; 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (1Sa 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2Ch 11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Mic 1:15).
The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" (1Sa 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.
A city in the shephelah, or low country between the hill country of Judah and the sea; very ancient (Ge 38:1,12,20); the seat of one of the 31 petty king smitten by Joshua (Jos 12:15). Fortified by Rehoboam (2Ch 11:7) Called for its beauty "the glory of Israel" (Mic 1:15). Reoccupied on the return from Bahyhm (Ne 11:30). The limestone cliffs of the shephelah are pierced with caves, one of which was that of Adullam, David' s resort (1Sa 22:1; 2Sa 23:13; 1Ch 11:15). Tradition fixes on Khureitun as the site, S. of the wady Urtas, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea. This cave on the borders of the Dead Sea six miles S.E. of Bethlehem (his parents' residence) would be more likely as the place whence David took his parents to Moab close by, than the region of the city Adullam in the far West. Names of western places are sometimes repeated in the East. David's usual haunts were in this eastern region.
The cave's mouth can only be approached on foot across the cliff's edge; it runs in by a long winding narrow passage, with cavities on either side; a large chamber within, with very high arches, has numerous passages to all directions, joined by others at right angles, and forming a perplexing labyrinth. The air within is dry and pure. David's familiarity with it, as a Bethlehemite, would naturally lead him to it. Lieut. Conder (Palest. Explor.) at first fixed on the cave Mogharet Umm el Tumaymiyeh, five miles N. of Ayd el Mieh; agreeing with the position assigned by Eusebius 10 miles E. of Eleutheropolis; but the cave with its damp hot atmosphere is unfit for human habitation. In a later report Conder, after surveying the ground, fixes on Ayd el Mieh (feast of the hundred) as the site of the cave and city of Adullam, eight miles N.E. of Beit Jebrin (Libnah), 10 miles S.W. of Tell es Safyeh (Gath), and half way between Socoh and Keilah: 500 feet above wady Sumt (valley of Elah); barring the Philistines' progress up this valley to Judah's grain lands.
Tombs, wells, terraces, and rock fortifications are to be traced. It is connected by roads with adjoining places, Maresha (El Marash), Jarmuth (Yarmuk), and Socoh (Suweikeh), and has a system of caves close to its wells still inhabited, or used as stables, and large enough for all David's band. On the top of the city hill are two or three caves which together could accommodate 250 men. The darkness, scorpions, bats, and flies are against Khureitun and Deir Dubban caverns as a residence. From Gibeah (Jeba) David fled to Nob, thence down the valley to Gath (Tell es Safyeh); from Gath he returned to Judah. On the edge of the country between Philistia and Judah, he collected his band into Adullam (Ayd el Mieh); thence, by the prophet's direction, to the hills, a four miles' march to Hareth, still within reach of his own Bethlehem. To the present day the cave dwelling peasantry avoid large caves such as Khureitun and Umm el Tuweimin, and prefer the drier, smaller caves, lighted by the sun, such as Ayd el Mieh, meaning in Arabic "feast of the hundred." The expedition of David's three mighty men from Ayd el Mieh to Bethlehem would be then 12 leagues, not too far for what is described as an exploit (2Sa 23:13-17; 1Ch 11:15-19).
A city in the Shephelah, assigned to Judah; named between Jarmuth and Socoh (Jos 15:35 etc.). It is probably the modern 'Id el-Ma', about 8 miles N.W. of Beit Jibr
One of the royal cities of Canaan, afterwards part of Judah's lot. Jos 12:15; 15:35. It was rebuilt or fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:7 ; and was dwelt in by some who returned from exile. Ne 11:30; Mic 1:15. Identified with Aid-el-ma, a name similar to Adullam, 31 39' N, 35 0' E. More interest attaches to the CAVE OF ADULLAM than to the city, because of its having been a stronghold of David. In the locality of the place named above there are limestone cliffs, in which are extensive excavations, one of which may have been David's cave of Adullam. This is in the low country and all David's house went down from the hills of Bethlehem to him. 1Sa 22:1. The traditional site is a cave in the Wady Khureitun on the east part of Judah. It is approached by a narrow footpath (now partly blocked up by a fallen rock) which could easily be defended, and the cave is very large. Both this and other caves near where the city of Adullam was located are by different travellers strongly advocated as the true site. The 'Cave of Adullam' has become a proverbial expression for a refuge in distress, because there gathered to David, besides his relatives, "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented," or bitter of soul, and he became their captain. 1Sa 22:1-2; 2Sa 23:13; 1Ch 11:15. David was God's anointed king, and the prophet Gad went to him, and Abiathar the priest; so that with that outcast company were God's prophet, priest, and king, though all the outward forms of worship were elsewhere: typical of the Lord Jesus in His rejection. When on earth the outward forms were not with Him; and now that He is in glory His virtual rejection is still as complete even by some in Christendom.
(justice of the people), Apocr. ODOLLAM, a city of Judah int he lowland of the Shefelah,
the seat of a Canaanite king,
and evidently a place of great antiquity.
Fortified by Rehoboam,
it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon,
and still a city in the time of the Macabees. 2Ma 12:38 Adullam was probably near Deir Dubban, five or six miles north of Eleutheropolis. The limestone cliffs of the whole of that locality are pierced with extensive excavations, some one of which is doubtless the "cave of Adullam," the refuge of David.
ADULLAM, a city in the tribe of Judah, to the west of Hebron, whose king was slain by Joshua, Jos 12:15. It is frequently mentioned in the history of Saul and David; and is chiefly memorable from the cave in its neighbourhood, where David retired from Achish, king of Gath, when he was joined by the distressed and discontented, to the number of four hundred, over whom he became captain, 1Sa 22:1. Judas Maccabaeus encamped in the plain of Adullam, where he passed the Sabbath day, 2 Mac. 12:38. Eusebius says that, in his time, Adullam was a very great town, ten miles to the east of Eleutheropolis.