The head was usually uncovered. In Le 10:6 the sense of "uncover (literally, "let loose") not your heads" is "let not your hair fall loosely from your head" as in mourning. When needful the head was covered with the mantle; the radid and tsaiph were so used, the veil also. In Job 29:14, "my judgment (justice) was as ... a diadem," translated "a turban," or head-dress of linen rolled around (tsaniph). It and the flowing outer "robe" characterize an oriental grandee or high priest (Zec 3:5). The tsaniyph) was worn also by an adorned lady (Isa 3:23, "hoods" or mitres), also by kings, Isa 62:3. The pe-eer was a holiday ornamental head-dress; (Isa 61:3) "beauty for ashes" (a play on similar sounds, pe-eer epher), to give them the ornamental headdress worn on joyous occasions (Eze 24:17) for the ashes cast on the head in mourning (2Sa 13:19).
The high priest's "mitre" was a twisted band of linen coiled into a cap, like a turban, with a plate or crown of gold in front,. Instead of this the ordinary priests wore "bonnets" (rather caps) "for glory and for beauty." In Isa 61:10, "as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments" (pe-eer), translated" with the priests' ornamental head-dress," appropriate to the "kingdom of priests," consecrated to offer spiritual sacrifices to God continually (Ex 19:6; Re 5:10; 20:6). The pe-eer refers especially to the jewels and ornaments with which the turban is decorated. In Eze 16:10 "I girded thee about with fine linen" may refer to the turban. In Eze 23:15 "exceeding in dyed attire," translated "redundant in dyed turbans," i.e. with ample dyed turbans; the Assyrians delighted in ample richly dyed headdresses anti robes. In Da 3:21 for" hats" translated "outer mantles."
The Hebrews do not appear to have regarded a covering for the head as an essential article of dress. Hats were unknown. The earliest notice we have of such a thing is in connection with the sacerdotal vestments.
The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being worn by nobles,
while the peer was an article of holiday dress,
Authorized Version "beauty;"
and was worn at weddings.
The ordinary head-dress of the Bedouin consists of the keffieh, a square handkerchief, generally of red and yellow cotton or cotton and silk, folded so that three of the corners hang down over the back and shoulders, leaving the face exposed, and bound round the head by a cord. It is not improbable that a similar covering was used by the Hebrews on certain occasions. The Assyrian head-dress is described in
under the terms "exceeding in dyed attire." The word rendered "hats" in
properly applies to a cloak.