Atonement, in OT
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And Moses cometh in, and recounteth to the people all the words of Jehovah, and all the judgments, and all the people answer -- one voice, and say, 'All the words which Jehovah hath spoken we do.'
And Moses saith unto Aaron, 'Draw near unto the altar, and make thy sin-offering, and thy burnt-offering, and make atonement for thyself, and for the people, and make the offering of the people, and make atonement for them, as Jehovah hath commanded.'
And if the whole company of Israel err ignorantly, and the thing hath been hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done something against one of all the commands of Jehovah concerning things which are not to be done, and have been guilty; when the sin which they have sinned concerning it hath been known, then have the assembly brought near a bullock, a son of the herd, for a sin-offering, and they have brought it in before the tent of meeting;
'And when ye err, and do not all these commands which Jehovah hath spoken unto Moses, the whole that Jehovah hath charged upon you by the hand of Moses, from the day that Jehovah hath commanded, and henceforth, to your generations, then it hath been, if from the eyes of the company it hath been done in ignorance, that all the company have prepared one bullock, a son of the herd, for a burnt-offering, for sweet fragrance to Jehovah, and its present, and its libation, according to the ordinance, and one kid of the goats for a sin-offering. read more.
And the priest hath made atonement for all the company of the sons of Israel, and it hath been forgiven them, for it is ignorance, and they -- they have brought in their offering, a fire-offering to Jehovah, even their sin-offering before Jehovah for their ignorance; and it hath been forgiven to all the company of the sons of Israel, and to the sojourner who is sojourning in their midst; for to all the company it is done in ignorance.
And when a man lieth with a woman with seed of copulation, and she a maid-servant, betrothed to a man, and not really ransomed, or freedom hath not been given to her, an investigation there is; they are not put to death, for she is not free. And he hath brought in his guilt-offering to Jehovah, unto the opening of the tent of meeting, a ram for a guilt-offering, and the priest hath made atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering before Jehovah, for his sin which he hath sinned, and it hath been forgiven him because of his sin which he hath sinned.
And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses, saying, 'When any person doth sin, and hath committed a trespass against Jehovah, and hath lied to his fellow concerning a deposit, or concerning fellowship, or concerning violent robbery, or hath oppressed his fellow; or hath found a lost thing, and hath lied concerning it, and hath sworn to a falsehood, concerning one of all these which man doth, sinning in them: read more.
'Then it hath been, when he sinneth, and hath been guilty, that he hath returned the plunder which he hath taken violently away, or the thing which he hath got by oppression, or the deposit which hath been deposited with him, or the lost thing which he hath found; or all that concerning which he sweareth falsely, he hath even repaid it in its principal, and its fifth he is adding to it; to him whose it is he giveth it in the day of his guilt-offering. 'And his guilt-offering he bringeth in to Jehovah, a ram, a perfect one, out of the flock, at thy estimation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest, and the priest hath made atonement for him before Jehovah, and it hath been forgiven him, concerning one thing of all that he doth, by being guilty therein.'
And the person who doth aught with a high hand -- of the native or of the sojourner -- Jehovah he is reviling, and that person hath been cut off from the midst of his people; because the word of Jehovah he despised, and His command hath broken -- that person is certainly cut off; his iniquity is on him.'
And ye profane not the land which ye are in, for blood profaneth the land; as to the land, it is not pardoned for blood which is shed in it except by the blood of him who sheddeth it;
and Aaron hath made atonement on its horns, once in a year, by the blood of the sin-offering of atonements; once in a year doth he make atonement for it, to your generations; it is most holy to Jehovah.'
And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses, after the death of the two sons of Aaron, in their drawing near before Jehovah, and they die; 'With this doth Aaron come in unto the sanctuary; with a bullock, a son of the herd, for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering; a holy linen coat he putteth on, and linen trousers are on his flesh, and with a linen girdle he girdeth himself, and with a linen mitre he wrappeth himself up; they are holy garments; and he hath bathed with water his flesh, and hath put them on. read more.
'And from the company of the sons of Israel he taketh two kids of the goats for a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering; and Aaron hath brought near the bullock of the sin-offering which is his own, and hath made atonement for himself, and for his house; and he hath taken the two goats, and hath caused them to stand before Jehovah, at the opening of the tent of meeting. 'And Aaron hath given lots over the two goats, one lot for Jehovah, and one lot for a goat of departure; and Aaron hath brought near the goat on which the lot for Jehovah hath gone up, and hath made it a sin-offering. 'And the goat on which the lot for a goat of departure hath gone up is caused to stand living before Jehovah to make atonement by it, to send it away for a goat of departure into the wilderness. And Aaron hath brought near the bullock of the sin-offering which is his own, and hath made atonement for himself, and for his house, and hath slaughtered the bullock of the sin-offering which is his own, and hath taken the fulness of the censer of burning coals of fire from off the altar, from before Jehovah, and the fulness of his hands of thin spice-perfume, and hath brought it within the vail; and he hath put the perfume on the fire before Jehovah, and the cloud of the perfume hath covered the mercy-seat which is on the testimony, and he dieth not. 'And he hath taken of the blood of the bullock, and hath sprinkled with his finger on the front of the mercy-seat eastward; even at the front of the mercy-seat he doth sprinkle seven times of the blood with his finger. And he hath slaughtered the goat of the sin-offering which is the people's, and hath brought in its blood unto the inside of the vail, and hath done with its blood as he hath done with the blood of the bullock, and hath sprinkled it on the mercy-seat, and at the front of the mercy-seat, and he hath made atonement for the sanctuary because of the uncleanness of the sons of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins; and so he doth for the tent of meeting which is tabernacling with them in the midst of their uncleannesses. 'And no man is in the tent of meeting in his going in to make atonement in the sanctuary, till his coming out; and he hath made atonement for himself, and for his house, and for all the assembly of Israel. And he hath gone out unto the altar which is before Jehovah, and hath made atonement for it; and he hath taken of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and hath put on the horns of the altar round about; and he hath sprinkled on it of the blood with his finger seven times, and hath cleansed it, and hath hallowed it from the uncleannesses of the sons of Israel. And he hath ceased from making atonement for the sanctuary, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, and hath brought near the living goat; and Aaron hath laid his two hands on the head of the living goat, and hath confessed over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, and hath put them on the head of the goat, and hath sent it away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness; and the goat hath borne on him all their iniquities unto a land of separation. 'And he hath sent the goat away into the wilderness, and Aaron hath come in unto the tent of meeting, and hath stripped off the linen garments which he had put on in his going in unto the sanctuary, and hath placed them there; and he hath bathed his flesh with water in the holy place, and hath put on his garments, and hath come out, and hath made his burnt-offering, and the burnt-offering of the people, and hath made atonement for himself and for the people; and with the fat of the sin-offering he doth make perfume on the altar. 'And he who is sending away the goat for a goat of departure doth wash his garments, and hath bathed his flesh with water, and afterwards he cometh in unto the camp. And the bullock of the sin-offering, and the goat of the sin-offering, whose blood hath been brought in to make atonement in the sanctuary, doth one bring out unto the outside of the camp, and they have burnt with fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung; and he who is burning them doth wash his garments, and hath bathed his flesh with water, and afterwards he cometh in unto the camp. And it hath been to you for a statute age-during, in the seventh month, in the tenth of the month, ye humble yourselves, and do no work -- the native, and the sojourner who is sojourning in your midst; for on this day he maketh atonement for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins before Jehovah ye are clean; it is to you a sabbath of rest, and ye have humbled yourselves -- a statute age-during. 'And the priest whom he doth anoint, and whose hand he doth consecrate to act as priest instead of his father, hath made atonement, and hath put on the linen garments, the holy garments; and he hath made atonement for the holy sanctuary; and for the tent of meeting, even for the altar he doth make atonement; yea, for the priests, and for all the people of the assembly he maketh atonement.
yea, Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'Speak unto Aaron thy brother, and he cometh not in at all times unto the sanctuary within the vail, unto the front of the mercy-seat, which is upon the ark, and he dieth not, for in a cloud I am seen upon the mercy-seat.
and into the second, once in the year, only the chief priest, not apart from blood, which he doth offer for himself and the errors of the people,
'And thou hast made a mercy-seat of pure gold, two cubits and a half its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth; and thou hast made two cherubs of gold, beaten work dost thou make them, at the two ends of the mercy-seat; and make thou one cherub at the end on this side, and one cherub at the end on that; at the mercy-seat ye do make the cherubs on its two ends. read more.
And the cherubs have been spreading out wings on high, covering the mercy-seat over with their wings, and their faces are one towards another -- towards the mercy-seat are the faces of the cherubs. 'And thou hast put the mercy-seat on the ark above, and unto the ark thou dost put the testimony which I give unto thee; and I have met with thee there, and have spoken with thee from off the mercy-seat (from between the two cherubs, which are on the ark of the testimony) all that which I command thee concerning the sons of Israel.
and thou hast put it before the vail, which is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy-seat which is over the testimony, whither I am met with thee.
And in the going in of Moses unto the tent of meeting to speak with Him -- he doth even hear the voice speaking unto him from off the mercy-seat which is upon the ark of the testimony, from between the two cherubs; and He speaketh unto him.
for the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar, to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood which maketh atonement for the soul.
and with blood almost all things are purified according to the law, and apart from blood-shedding forgiveness doth not come.
And he bringeth near the second ram, a ram of the consecrations, and Aaron and his sons lay their hands on the head of the ram, and one slaughtereth, and Moses taketh of its blood, and putteth on the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot; and he bringeth near the sons of Aaron, and Moses putteth of the blood on the tip of their right ear, and on the thumb of their right hand, and on the great toe of their right foot. And Moses sprinkleth the blood on the altar round about, read more.
and taketh the fat, and the fat tail, and all the fat that is on the inwards, and the redundance above the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right leg; and out of the basket of unleavened things, which is before Jehovah, he hath taken one unleavened cake, and one cake of oiled bread, and one thin cake, and putteth them on the fat, and on the right leg; and putteth the whole on the hands of Aaron, and on the hands of his sons, and waveth them -- a wave-offering before Jehovah. And Moses taketh them from off their hands, and maketh perfume on the altar, on the burnt-offering, they are consecrations for sweet fragrance; it is a fire-offering to Jehovah; and Moses taketh the breast, and waveth it -- a wave-offering before Jehovah; of the ram of the consecrations it hath been to Moses for a portion, as Jehovah hath commanded Moses. And Moses taketh of the anointing oil, and of the blood which is on the altar, and sprinkleth on Aaron, on his garments, and on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him, and he sanctifieth Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him.
For every chief priest -- out of men taken -- in behalf of men is set in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins,
able to be gentle to those ignorant and going astray, since himself also is compassed with infirmity; and because of this infirmity he ought, as for the people, so also for himself to offer for sins;
And Aaron draweth near unto the altar, and slaughtereth the calf of the sin-offering, which is for himself; and the sons of Aaron bring the blood near unto him, and he dippeth his finger in the blood, and putteth it on the horns of the altar, and the blood he hath poured out at the foundation of the altar; and the fat, and the kidneys, and the redundance of the liver, of the sin-offering, he hath made a perfume on the altar, as Jehovah hath commanded Moses; read more.
and the flesh and the skin he hath burnt with fire, at the outside of the camp.
And thou hast made a flower of pure gold, and hast opened on it -- openings of a signet -- 'Holy to Jehovah;' and thou hast put it on a blue ribbon, and it hath been on the mitre -- over-against the front of the mitre it is; and it hath been on the forehead of Aaron, and Aaron hath borne the iniquity of the holy things which the sons of Israel do hallow, even all their holy gifts; and it hath been on his forehead continually for a pleasing thing for them before Jehovah.
And the goat of the sin-offering hath Moses diligently sought, and lo, it is burnt, and he is wroth against Eleazar, and against Ithamar, sons of Aaron, who are left, saying, Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin-offering in the holy place, for it is most holy -- and it He hath given to you to take away the iniquity of the company, to make atonement for them before Jehovah?
and he hath brought it near before Jehovah, and hath made atonement for her, and she hath been cleansed from the fountain of her blood; this is the law of her who is bearing, in regard to a male or to a female. 'And if her hand find not the sufficiency of a sheep, then she hath taken two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, one for a burnt-offering, and one for a sin-offering, and the priest hath made atonement for her, and she hath been cleansed.'
and the remnant of the oil which is on the palm of the priest, he putteth on the head of him who is to be cleansed, and the priest hath made atonement for him before Jehovah. 'And the priest hath made the sin-offering, and hath made atonement for him who is to be cleansed from his uncleanness, and afterwards he doth slaughter the burnt-offering; and the priest hath caused the burnt-offering to ascend, also the present, on the altar, and the priest hath made atonement for him, and he hath been clean. read more.
And if he is poor, and his hand is not reaching these things, then he hath taken one lamb -- a guilt-offering, for a wave-offering, to make atonement for him, and one-tenth deal of flour mixed with oil for a present, and a log of oil, and two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, which his hand reacheth to, and one hath been a sin-offering, and the one a burnt-offering;
According to their abundance so they sinned against Me, Their honour into shame I change. The sin of My people they do eat, And unto their iniquity lift up their soul.
and the sons of Eli are sons of worthlessness, they have not known Jehovah. And the custom of the priests with the people is: any man sacrificing a sacrifice -- then hath the servant of the priest come in when the flesh is boiling, and the hook of three teeth in his hand, and hath struck it into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot; all that the hook bringeth up doth the priest take for himself; thus they do to all Israel who are coming in, there, in Shiloh. read more.
Also before they make perfume with the fat -- then hath the priest's servant come in, and said to the man who is sacrificing, 'Give flesh to roast for the priest, and he doth not take of thee flesh boiled, but raw;' and the man saith unto him, 'Let them surely make a perfume (as to-day) with the fat, then take to thee as thy soul desireth;' and he hath said to him, 'Surely now thou dost give; and if not -- I have taken by strength.' And the sin of the young men is very great in the presence of Jehovah, for the men have despised the offering of Jehovah.
For from their least unto their greatest, Every one is gaining dishonest gain, And from prophet even unto priest, Every one is dealing falsely, And they heal the breach of the daughter of my people slightly, Saying, 'Peace, peace!' and there is no peace.
Its priests have wronged My law, And they pollute My holy things, Between holy and common they have not made separation, And between the unclean and the clean they have not made known, And from my sabbaths they have hidden their eyes, And I am pierced in their midst.
A son honoureth a father, and a servant his master. And if I am a father, where is Mine honour? And if I am a master, where is My fear? Said Jehovah of Hosts to you, O priests, despising My name! And ye have said: 'In what have we despised Thy name?' Ye are bringing nigh on Mine altar polluted bread, And ye have said: 'In what have we polluted Thee?' In your saying: 'The table of Jehovah -- it is despicable,' And when ye bring nigh the blind for sacrifice, 'There is no evil,' And when ye bring nigh the lame and sick, 'There is no evil;' Bring it near, I pray thee, to thy governor -- Doth he accept thee? or doth he lift up thy face? Said Jehovah of Hosts.
Because Ephraim did multiply altars to sin, They have been to him altars to sin. I write for him numerous things of My law, As a strange thing they have been reckoned. The sacrifices of Mine offerings! They sacrifice flesh, and they eat, Jehovah hath not accepted them, Now doth He remember their iniquity, And inspect their sin, They -- to Egypt they turn back.
Hear the word of Jehovah, ye rulers of Sodom, Give ear to the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah, Why to Me the abundance of your sacrifices? saith Jehovah, I have been satiated with burnt-offerings of rams, And fat of fatlings; And blood of bullocks, and lambs, And he-goats I have not desired. When ye come in to appear before Me, Who hath required this of your hand, To trample My courts? read more.
Add not to bring in a vain present, Incense -- an abomination it is to Me, New moon, and sabbath, calling of convocation! Rendure not iniquity -- and a restraint! Your new moons and your set seasons hath My soul hated, They have been upon me for a burden, I have been weary of bearing. And in your spreading forth your hands, I hide mine eyes from you, Also when ye increase prayer, I do not hear, Your hands of blood have been full. Wash ye, make ye pure, Turn aside the evil of your doings, from before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil, learn to do good. Seek judgment, make happy the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, strive for the widow.
Whoso slaughtereth the ox smiteth a man, Whoso sacrificeth the lamb beheadeth a dog, Whoso is bringing up a present -- The blood of a sow, Whoso is making mention of frankincense, Is blessing iniquity. Yea, they have fixed on their own ways, And in their abominations their soul hath delighted.
Thus said Jehovah of Hosts, God of Israel, Your burnt-offerings add to your sacrifices, And eat ye flesh. For I did not speak with your fathers, Nor did I command them in the day of My bringing them out of the land of Egypt, Concerning the matters of burnt-offering and sacrifice, But this thing I commanded them, saying: Hearken to My voice, And I have been to you for God, And ye -- ye are to Me for a people, And have walked in all the way that I command you, So that it is well for you. read more.
And they have not hearkened, nor inclined their ear, And they walk in the counsels, In the stubbornness, of their evil heart, And are for backward, and not for forward.