The largest ancient province of Asia Minor; having Pontus on the north, mount Taurus, separating it from Cilicia and Syria, on the south, Galatia on the west, and the Euphrates and Armenia on the east. It was watered by the river Halys, and was noted for its fine pastures and its excellent breed of horses, asses, and sheep. There were many Jews residing in it, Ac 2:9. Christianity was early introduced there, 1Pe 1:1, among a people proverbial for dullness, faithlessness, and vice. See CRETE. Several celebrated Christian fathers flourished in this province, as Basil and the three Gregories; and their churches may be traced as late as the tenth century.
The most eastern province of Asia Minor. Jews resident in it were among Peter's hearers at his memorable Pentecostal sermon (Ac 2:9). To them accordingly, among others, he addressed his First Epistle (1Pe 1:1). Judaism there paved the way for Christianity. Seleucus first introduced Jewish colonists into Asia Minor (Josephus, Ant. 12:3, section 4). Rome, by the civilization and improved roads which it carried with it every where, facilitated the spread first of Judaism, then of Christianity.
The approach to Cappadocia from Palestine and Syria was by the pass called "the Cilician gates," leading up through the Taurus range from the low region of Cilicia. Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N. along the sea, and Cappadocia on the S. Tiberius it was who reduced the Cappadocian Archclaus' kingdom to a province (A.D. 17), of which Caesarea was the capital, afterward the birthplace and see of Basil. Its cities, Nyssa, Nazianzus, Samosata, and Tyana, were noted in church history.
A large district in the mid-eastern part of Asia Minor, formed into a Roman province in a.d. 17. It was administered by a procurator sent out by the reigning emperor, being regarded as an unimportant district. In a.d. 70 Vespasian united it with Armenia Minor, and made the two together a large and important frontier province, to be governed by an ex-consul, under the title of legatus Augusti pro pr
District in the east of Asia Minor. Visitors from thence were at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost, and Peter includes this district when he addresses his first Epistle to the dispersed Jews. Ac 2:9; 1Pe 1:1. The district extended as far eastward as the Euphrates.
CAPPADOCIA, is called in Hebrew Caphtor. Cappadocia joined Galatia on the east, and is mentioned in Ac 2:9. and by St. Peter, who addresses his First Epistle to the dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Asia. The people of this country were formerly infamous for their vices; but after the promulgation of Christianity, it produced many great and worthy men: among these may be reckoned Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyssen, and St. Basil, commonly styled the Great.