The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews. They were practised in connection with the construction of the tabernacle and the temple (Ex 31:2,5; 35:33; 1Ki 6:18,35; Ps 74:6), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses (Ex 28:9-36; Zec 3:9; 2Ch 2:7,14). Isaiah (Isa 44:13-17) gives a minute description of the process of carving idols of wood.
And thou shalt take two onyx stones and grave in them the names of the children of Israel: six in the one stone, and the other six in the other stone: according to the order of their birth. read more. After the work of a stone graver, even as signets are graven, shalt thou grave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel, and shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold. And thou shalt put the two stones upon the two shoulders of the ephod, and they shall be stones of remembrance unto the children of Israel. And Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a remembrance. And thou shalt make hooks of gold, and two chains of fine gold: link work and wreathed, and fasten the wreathed chains to the hooks. And thou shalt make the breastlap of example with broidered work: even after the work of the ephod shalt thou make it: of gold, jacinth, scarlet, purple and twined bysse shalt thou make it. Foursquare it shall be and double, a hand breadth long and a hand breadth broad. And thou shalt fill it with four rows of stones. In the first row shall be a Sardius, a Topaz and Smaragdus. The second row, a Ruby, Sapphire and Diamond. The third, Ligurius, an Agate and Amethyst. The fourth, a Turquoise, Onyx and Jasper. And they shall be set in gold in their enclosures. And the stones shall be graven as signets be graven: with the names of the children of Israel, even with twelve names every one with his name according to the twelve tribes. And thou shalt make upon the breastlap two fastening chains of pure gold and wreathen work. And thou shalt make likewise upon the breastlap two rings of gold and put them on the edges of the breastlap, and put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are in the edges of the breastlap. And the two ends of the two chains thou shalt fasten in the two rings, and put them upon the shoulders of the ephod: on the foreside of it. And thou shalt yet make two rings of gold, and put them in the two edges of the breastlap even in the borders thereof toward the inside of the ephod that is over against it. And yet two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and put them on the two sides of the ephod, beneath over against the breastlap, below where the sides are joined together upon the broidered girdle of the ephod. And they shall bind the breastlap by his rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of jacinth, that it may lie close unto the broidered girdle of the ephod, that the breastlap be not loosed from the ephod. "And Aaron shall bear the names of the children Israel in the breastlap of example upon his heart, when he goeth into the holy place, for a remembrance before the LORD always. And thou shalt put in the breastlap of example Light and Perfectness: that they be even upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the LORD and Aaron shall bear the example of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD always. And thou shalt make the tunicle unto the ephod, altogether of jacinth. And there shall be a hole for the head in the midst of it, and let there be a bond of woven work round about the collar of it: as it were the collar of a partlet, that it rend not. And beneath upon the hem, thou shalt make pomegranates of Jacincth, of scarlet, and of purple round about the hem, and bells of gold between them round about: that there be ever a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, round about upon the hem of the tunicle. And Aaron shall have it upon him when he ministereth, that the sound may be heard when he goeth into the holy place before the LORD and when he cometh out, that he die not. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave thereon, as signets are graven, 'The holiness of the LORD,'
"Behold, I have called by name, Bezalel the son of Uri son to Hur of the tribe of Judah.
and with the craft to grave stones, to set and to carve in timber, and to work in all manner workmanship.
and with graving of stones to set, and with carving in wood, and to work in all manner of subtle works.
But now they break down all the carved work thereof with axes and hammers.
The carpenter or image carver taketh meat of the timber, and spreadeth forth his line; he marketh it with some colour; he planeth it, he ruleth it, and squareth it, and maketh it after the image of a man; and according to the beauty of a man that it may stand in the temple. Moreover, he goeth out to hew down Cedar trees: He bringeth home Elms and Oaks, and other timber of the wood. Or else the Fir trees which he planted himself, and such as the rain hath swelled, read more. which wood serveth for men to burn. Of this he taketh and warmeth himself withal: he maketh a fire of it to bake bread. And afterward maketh a god thereof, to honour it: and an Idol to kneel before it. One piece he burneth in the fire; with another he roasteth flesh, that he may eat roast his belly full; with the third he warmeth himself, and sayeth, "Aha, I am well warmed, I have been at the fire." And of the residue he maketh him a god, and an Idol for himself. He kneeleth before it, he worshippeth it, he prayeth unto it, and sayeth, "Deliver me, for thou art my god!"