The hardest and most brilliant of gems, very rare and costly. The largest diamonds known in the world, procured from India and Brazil, are guarded among the royal treasures of England, Russia, etc., and valued at immense sums. Common diamonds are used not only for ornaments, but for cutting and graving hard substances, Jer 17:1. The Hebrew word here used is called "adamant" in Eze 3:9; Zec 7:12. See ADAMANT. These is another Hebrew word also translated "diamond," Ex 28:18; 39:11; Eze 28:13, and thought by some to mean the topaz. The diamond is carbon in its purest and crystalline form.
(1.) A precious gem (Heb. yahalom', in allusion to its hardness), otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the second row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name of Naphtali engraven on it (Ex 28:18; 39:11; R.V. marg., "sardonyx.")
(2.) A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned in Jer 17:1. From its hardness it was used for cutting and perforating other minerals. It is rendered "adamant" (q.v.) in Eze 3:9; Zec 7:12. It is the hardest and most valuable of precious stones.
Third in the second row of precious stones on the high priest's breast-plate (Ex 28:18). Yahalim, which some translate "onyx," others translate it as "jasper." There is no proof the diamond was then known. Its engraving is very difficult, and the large size of the stones on the high priest's breast-plate makes it not probable the diamond is meant. Shamir is the usual term. (See ADAMANT.)
The Hebrew word in Ex 28:18; 39:11; Eze 28:13, is yahalom. It occurs only in these places, and cannot be identified; it is generally held not to be what is now known as the diamond. In Jer 17:1 the word is shamir. This is translated 'adament' in Eze 3:9. It is thought to be the corundum, a very hard stone, but being of different hues it has now various names.
(Heb. yahalom), a gem crystallized carbon, the most valued and brilliant of precious stones, remarkable for its hardness, the third precious stone in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest,
and mentioned by Ezekiel,
among the precious stones of the king of Tyre. Some suppose yahalom to be the "emerald." Respecting shamir, which is translated "Diamond" in
see under ADAMANT.
DIAMOND. ????. Ex 28:18; 29:11; Eze 28:13. This has from remote antiquity been considered as the most valuable, or, more properly, the most costly substance in nature. The reason of the high estimation in which it was held by the ancients was its rarity and its extreme hardness and brilliancy. It filled the sixth place in the high priest's breastplate, and on it was engraven the name of Naphtali.