In all three references the hornet is mentioned as an instrument of the Lord to drive out the Canaanites. By most interpreters a literal interpretation is accepted, but a metaphorical use of the word is contended for by some. Sayce has suggested that the reference may be to the armies of Rameses iii., as the standard-bearers wore two devices like flies. The most plentiful hornet in Palestine is the Vespa orientalis. Hornets attack only when interfered with.
E. W. G. Masterman.