David King over All Israel
1 Then (a)all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and said, “Behold, we are your bone and your flesh. 2 In times past, when Saul was king over us, it was you who led Israel out [to war] and brought Israel in [from battle]. And the Lord told you, ‘You shall shepherd My people Israel and be ruler over them.’”(A) 3 So all the elders (tribal leaders) of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and King David made a covenant with them at Hebron before the Lord; and they anointed him king over Israel. 4 David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years. 5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.
6 Now the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who said to David, “You shall not enter here, for the blind and the lame [even the weakest among us] will turn you away”; they thought, “David cannot come in here [because the walls are impenetrable].” 7 Nevertheless, David captured the stronghold (fortress) of Zion, that is, the City of David. 8 Then David said on that day, “Whoever strikes the Jebusites, let him go up through the [underground] water shaft to strike the lame and the blind, who are detested by David’s soul [because of their arrogance].” So [for that reason] they say, “The blind or the lame (Jebusites) shall not come into the [royal] house [of Israel].”(B) 9 So David lived in the stronghold and called it the City of David. And he built all around [the surrounding area] from the (b)Millo [fortification] and inward. 10 David became greater and greater, for the Lord, the God of hosts (armies), was with him.
11 Now Hiram the king of Tyre sent messengers to David with cedar trees, carpenters, and stonemasons; and they built a house (palace) for David. 12 And David knew that the Lord had established him as king over Israel, and that He had exalted his kingdom for His people Israel’s sake.
13 David took more (c)concubines and wives from Jerusalem, after he came from Hebron; and more sons and daughters were born to him. 14 And these are the names of those who were born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, 15 Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, 16 Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet.
War with the Philistines
17 When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over Israel, all the Philistines went up to look for him, but he heard about it and went down to the (d)stronghold. 18 Now the Philistines had come and spread out [for battle] in the Valley of Rephaim. 19 David inquired of the Lord, saying, “Shall I go up against the Philistines? Will You hand them over to me?” And the Lord said to David, “Go up, for I will certainly hand them over to you.” 20 So David came to Baal-perazim, and he defeated them there, and said, “The Lord has broken through my enemies before me, like a breakthrough of water.” So he named that place Baal-perazim (master of breakthroughs). 21 The Philistines abandoned their [pagan] idols there, so David and his men took them away [to be burned].
22 The Philistines came up once again and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim. 23 When David inquired of the Lord, He said, “You shall not go up, but circle around behind them and come at them in front of the balsam trees. 24 And when you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, then you shall pay attention and act promptly, for at that time the Lord will have gone out before you to strike the army of the Philistines.” 25 David did just as the Lord had commanded him, and struck down the Philistines from Geba as far as Gezer.
a. 2 Samuel 5:1: David had already been king of Judah at Hebron for more than seven years; now all the tribes recognize his kingship.
b. 2 Samuel 5:9: The exact nature of the Millo is unclear, but most scholars believe it was some sort of military fortification such as a tower, a citadel, a significant part of a wall or even an earth-fill or terraced rampart. It was located on the eastern side of the City of David. It was later repaired by King Hezekiah.
c. 2 Samuel 5:13: See note Gen 22:24.
d. 2 Samuel 5:17: Heb Masada.