1 There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it is common among men:
1 There exists another misfortune that I have observed on earth, and it is a heavy burden upon human beings:
1 There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it weighs heavily on men:
2 a man to whom God has (B)given riches and wealth and honor so that his soul (C)lacks nothing of all that he desires; yet God has not empowered him to eat from them, for a foreigner (b)enjoys them. This is (c)vanity and a severe affliction.
2 A man to whom God hath given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it: this is vanity, and it is an evil disease.
2 God gives a man riches, wealth, and honor(B) so that he lacks nothing of all he desires for himself,(C) but God does not allow him to enjoy them. Instead, a stranger will enjoy them. This is futile and a sickening tragedy.
2 a man to whom God gives wealth, riches, and honor, so that he lacks none of his heart's desires but God does not give him the capability to enjoy them. Instead, a stranger consumes them. This is pointless and a grievous affliction.
2 a man to whom God has given riches and wealth and honor, so that he lacks nothing of all that he desires, yet God has not given him the power or capacity to enjoy them [all those things which are gifts from God], but a stranger [in whom he has no interest succeeds him and] enjoys them. This is vanity and it is a [cause of] great distress.(A)
3 If a man fathers a hundred children and lives many years, however many (d)they be, but his soul is not satisfied with good things and he does not even have a proper (D)burial, then I say, “Better (E)the miscarriage than he,
3 If a man beget an hundred children, and live many years, so that the days of his years be many, and his soul be not filled with good, and also that he have no burial; I say, that an untimely birth is better than he.
3 A man may father a hundred children and live many years. No matter how long he lives,(b) if he is not satisfied by good things and does not even have a proper burial,(D) I say that a stillborn child is better off than he.(E)
3 A man might father a hundred children, and live for many years, so that the length of his life is long but if his life does not overflow with goodness, and he doesn't receive a proper burial, I maintain that stillborn children are better off than he is,
4 for it comes in futility and goes into obscurity; and its name is covered in obscurity.
4 For he cometh in with vanity, and departeth in darkness, and his name shall be covered with darkness.
4 For he comes in futility and he goes in darkness, and his name is shrouded in darkness.
4 because stillborn children arrive in pointlessness, leave in darkness, and their names are covered in darkness.
4 for the miscarriage comes in futility (in vain) and passes into obscurity; and its name is covered in obscurity.
5 Moreover he hath not seen the sun, nor known any thing: this hath more rest than the other.
5 Though a stillborn child does not see the sun and is not conscious, it has more rest than he.
5 Furthermore, though they never saw the sun nor learned anything, they are more content than the other.
5 It has not seen the sun nor had any knowledge; yet it has more rest and is better off than he.
6 Even if the other man lives a thousand years twice and does not (f)enjoy good things—(F)do not all go to one place?”
6 Yea, though he live a thousand years twice told, yet hath he seen no good: do not all go to one place?
6 And if he lives a thousand years twice, but does not experience happiness, do not both go to the same place?
6 Even if he lives a thousand years twice over without experiencing the best aren't all of them going to the same place?
6 Even if the other man lives a thousand years twice over and yet has seen no good and experienced no enjoyment—do not both go to one place [the grave]?”
7 All the labour of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.
7 Every person works for his own self-interests, but his desires remain unsatisfied.
8 For (H)what advantage does the wise man have over the fool? What advantage does the poor man have, knowing how to walk before the living?
8 For what hath the wise more than the fool? what hath the poor, that knoweth to walk before the living?
8 What advantage then does the wise man have over the fool?(G) What advantage is there for the poor person who knows how to conduct himself before others?
8 For what advantage has the wise person over the fool? What advantage does the poor man have in knowing how to face life?
8 For what advantage has the wise man over the fool [for being worldly-wise is not the secret to happiness]? What advantage has the poor man who has learned how to walk [publicly] among the living [with men’s eyes on him; for being poor is not the secret to happiness either]?
9 What the eyes (I)see is better than what the soul (i)desires. This too is (J)futility and a striving after wind.
9 Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire: this is also vanity and vexation of spirit.
9 Better what the eyes see than wandering desire.(H) This too is futile and a pursuit of the wind.(I)
9 It is better to focus on what you can see than to meander after your self-interest; this also is pointless and a chasing after wind.
9 What the eyes see [enjoying what is available] is better than [craving] what the soul desires. This too is futility and chasing after the wind.
10 Whatever (K)exists has already been named, and it is known what man is; for he (L)cannot dispute with him who is stronger than he is.
10 That which hath been is named already, and it is known that it is man: neither may he contend with him that is mightier than he.
10 Whatever exists was given its name long ago,(d)(J) and it is known what man is. But he is not able to contend with the One stronger than he.(K)
10 Whatever exists has been named already; people know what it means to be human and a person cannot defeat one who is more powerful than he.
10 Whatever exists has already been named [long ago], and it is known what [a frail being] man is; for he cannot dispute with Him who is mightier than he.
11 For there are many words which increase futility. What then is the advantage to a man?
11 Seeing there be many things that increase vanity, what is man the better?
11 Because many words lead to pointlessness, how do people benefit from this? 12Who knows what is best for people in this life, every day of their pointless lives that they pass through like a shadow? Who informs people on earth what will come along after them?
11 For there are many other words that increase futility. What then is the advantage for a man?
12 For who knows what is good for a man during his lifetime, during the few (j)years of his futile life? He will (k)spend them like a shadow. For who can tell a man (M)what will be after him under the sun?
12 For who knoweth what is good for man in this life, all the days of his vain life which he spendeth as a shadow? for who can tell a man what shall be after him under the sun?
12 For who knows what is good for man in life, in the few days of his futile life that he spends like a shadow?(M) Who can tell man what will happen after him under the sun?
12 For who [(a)limited by human wisdom] knows what is good for man during his lifetime, during the few days of his futile life? He spends them like a shadow [staying busy, but achieving nothing of lasting value]. For who can tell a man what will happen after him [to his work, his treasure, his plans] under the sun [after his life is over]?
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