5 occurrences in 5 dictionaries

Reference: Appeal


a reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Ex 18:13-26.)

Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Ac 25:11-12,21,25). Paul availed himself of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.

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De 17:8-9 implies a court of appeal in hard cases; compare Jg 4:5. The king subsequently deputized persons to inquire into and decide appeals (2Sa 15:3). Jehoshaphat appointed Levites, priests, and some of the fathers to constitute a court of appeal (2Ch 19:8). Compare Ezr 7:25. Afterward the final appeal lay to the Sanhedrim. A Roman citizen could appeal, in criminal cases, from the magistrate to the people; and in after times to the emperor, who succeeded to the power of the people. Paul's appeal (Ac 25:11) was from a trial by a provincial magistrate to one by the emperor.

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It would appear from the arrangements made by Moses that some of the judges were accounted as judges of appeal, but that Moses himself, as having the mind of God, was the ultimate judge. Ex 18:13-26. It is not probable, when the kingdom was established, that all causes were tried at Jerusalem; but only cases of appeal from the tribal judges; and it was such that Absalom alludes to in 2Sa 15:2-3: see also De 16:18. It is evident from De 17:8-12 that the mind of God was to be sought where He put His name, if the matter was too hard for the judges. The Jewish writers say that before and after the time of Christ on earth, appeals could be carried through the various courts to the Grand Sanhedrim at Jerusalem.

In the case of Paul appealing to Caesar, it was not an appeal from a judgement already given, as is the case in what is now called an appeal; but Paul, knowing the deadly enmity of the Jews, and the corruption of the governors, elected to be judged at the court of Caesar, which, as a Roman, he had the right to do. Ac 25:11. There is One who "cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity." Ps 98:9.

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The principle, of appeal was recognized by the Mosaic law in the establishment of a central court under the presidency of the judge or ruler for the time being, before which all cased too difficult for the local court were to be tried.

De 17:8-9

According to the above regulation, the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge,

Jg 4:5

and under the monarchy to the king. Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial authority to a court permanently established for the purpose.

2Ch 19:8

These courts were re-established by Ezra.

Ezr 7:25

After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. St. Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercized a right of appeal from the jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor.

Ac 25:11

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