The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews. They were practised in connection with the construction of the tabernacle and the temple (Ex 31:2,5; 35:33; 1Ki 6:18,35; Ps 74:6), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses (Ex 28:9-36; Zec 3:9; 2Ch 2:7,14). Isaiah (Isa 44:13-17) gives a minute description of the process of carving idols of wood.
And thou shalt take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel: Six of their names on one stone and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth. read more. With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a seal, shalt thou engrave those two stones with the names of the sons of Israel; thou shalt make them to be set in settings of gold. And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the sons of Israel, and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial. And thou shalt make the settings of gold and two small chains of pure gold; of wreathen work shalt thou make them and fasten the wreathen chains to the settings. And in the same manner thou shalt make the pectoral of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it, of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and of fine twined linen. It shall be square and double; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof. And thou shalt fill it with four rows of stones; The order shall be a ruby, an emerald, and a chrysolite; this shall be the first order. And the second order shall be a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a diamond. And the third order, a topaz, a turquoise, and an amethyst. And the fourth row a tarshish (or beryl) and an onyx and a jasper; they shall be set in gold in their inclosings. And those stones shall be in agreement with the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, in agreement with their names; each one in agreement with his name like the engravings of a seal; they shall be according to the twelve tribes. And thou shalt also make upon the pectoral small chains of wreathen work of pure gold. And thou shalt make upon the pectoral two rings of gold and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the pectoral. And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the pectoral. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two settings and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod on the front of it. Thou shalt also make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the pectoral in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward. Likewise two other rings of gold thou shalt make and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the front part thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the special girdle of the ephod. And they shall bind the pectoral by its rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the special girdle of the ephod and that the pectoral not be loosed from the ephod. And Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel in the pectoral of judgment upon his heart when he goes in unto the sanctuary for a memorial before the LORD continually. And thou shalt put in the pectoral of judgment Urim and Thummim, that they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goes in before the LORD; and Aaron shall always bear the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before the LORD. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue. And it shall have the collar of his head in the midst thereof, which shall have a binding of woven work round about it, as the collar of a habergeon, that it not be rent. And beneath upon the hem of it, thou shalt make pomegranates of blue and of purple and of scarlet round about the hem thereof and bells of gold between them round about. A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate upon the hem of the robe round about. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when he goes in unto the sanctuary before the LORD and when he comes out, that he not die. Thou shalt also make an open flower of pure gold and engrave upon it the engravings of a seal, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD.
See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;
and in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber, to work in all manner of workmanship.
and in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work.
But now they break down all the carved work thereof with axes and hammers.
The carpenter stretches out his rule; he measures it with a line; he fits it with planes; he marks it out with the compass; he makes it after the form of a noble man, in the likeness of the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house. He shall hew down cedars and take the cypress and the oak, and he shall strengthen himself with the trees of the forest; he shall plant a fir tree, which shall be nourished with the rain. read more. The man shall then use of it for firewood; for he will take thereof and warm himself; he will kindle it and bake bread; he will also make a god and worship it; he will fabricate an idol and shall kneel down before it. He shall burn part of it in the fire; with another part thereof he shall eat flesh; he shall roast meat and shall satisfy himself. Afterwards he shall warm himself and say, Aha, I have warmed myself, I have seen fire; the residue of it he turns into god, into his graven image; he humbles himself before it and worships it and prays unto it and says, Deliver me; for thou art my god.
For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone there are seven eyes; behold, I will engrave his labour, saith the LORD of the hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of the land in one day.