7 occurrences in 7 dictionaries

Reference: Hemlock


Ho 10:4; Am 6:12, in Hebrew, ROSH, usually translated gall or bitterness, De 32:32, and mentioned in connection with wormwood, De 29:18; Jer 9:15; 23:15; La 3:19. It indicates some wild, bitter, and noxious plant, which it is difficult to determine. According to some it is the poisonous hemlock, while others consider it to be the poppy.

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(1.) Heb rosh (Ho 10:4; rendered "gall" in De 29:18; 32:32; Ps 69:21; Jer 9:15; 23:15; "poison," Job 20:16; "venom," De 32:33). "Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood (De 29:18; La 3:19). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, but the poppy so called from its heads" (Gesenius, Lex.).

(2.) Heb la'anah, generally rendered "wormwood" (q.v.), De 29:18, Text 17; Pr 5:4; Jer 9:15; 23:15. Once it is rendered "hemlock" (Am 6:12; R.V., "wormwood"). This Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to curse," hence the accursed.

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So Celsius and the learned Ben Melech explain rosh (Ho 10:4; Am 6:12). (See GALL.) Gesenius explains, from the etymology, "poppy heads." Possibly many plants of bitter juice are meant. Rosh grew in grainfields rankly, and bore a berry or fruit. De 29:18; Jer 9:15; 23:15; La 3:19. Not necessarily poisonous.

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1. laanah, 'wormwood:' used only in a figurative sense for bitterness or poison. Am 6:12. It is translated WORMWOOD in De 29:18; Pr 5:4; Jer 9:15; 23:15; La 3:15,19; Am 5:7. It corresponds with yinqo" -->??????? in Re 8:11.

2. rosh, some poisonous plant expressive of bitterness or poison. Ho 10:4. The word is elsewhere translated 'gall,' 'poison,' and 'venom.' The common hemlock is the conium maculatum; the water hemlock the cicuta virosa.

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the common ground or dwarf hemlock, a bitter, poisonous plant. The Hebrew rosh is rendered "hemlock" in two passages,

Ho 10:4; Am 6:12

but elsewhere "gall." [GALL] (It is possible that the plant is rather the poppy than an hemlock. --Cook.)

See Gall

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HEMLOCK, ??? and ???, De 29:18; 32:32; Ps 69:21; Jer 8:14; 9:15; 23:15; La 3:5,19; Ho 10:4; Am 6:12. In the two latter places our translators have rendered the word hemlock, in the others gall. Hiller supposes it the centaureum, described by Pliny; but Celsius shows it to be the hemlock. It is evident, from De 29:18, that some herb or plant is meant of a malignant or nauseous kind, being there joined with wormwood, and in the margin of our Bibles explained to be "a poisonful herb." In like manner see Jer 8:14; 9:15; 23:15. In Ho 10:4, the comparison is to a bitter herb, which, growing among grain, overpowers the useful vegetable, and substitutes a pernicious weed. "If," says the author of "Scripture Illustrated," "the comparison be to a plant growing in the furrows of the field, strictly speaking, then we are much restricted in our plants, likely to answer this character; but if we may take the ditches around, or the moist or sunken places within the field also, which I partly suspect, then we may include other plants; and I do not see why hemlock may not be intended. Scheuchzer inclines to this rather than wormwood or agrostes, as the LXX have rendered it. The prophet appears to mean a vegetable which should appear wholesome, and resemble those known to be salutary, as judgment, when just, properly is; but experience would demonstrate its malignity, as unjust judgment is when enforced. Hemlock is poisonous, and water-hemlock especially; yet either of these may be mistaken, and some of their parts, the root particularly, may deceive but too fatally."

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