Reference: Holy Spirit, The
In the New Testament used in the KJV In the Old Testament "the Holy Spirit" (Ps 51:11; Isa 63:10-11). The Hebrew ruwach, and Greek pneuma, is the same for both "Spirit" and "Spirit." His personality is proved by attributes and acts being attributed to Him peculiarly. Ge 1:2, "the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters" at creation, as distinct from the Word's operation (Ge 1:3). He "strove with man" before the flood (Ge 6:3). He "came upon" Saul (1Sa 10:10) and "upon David," and then "the Spirit of Jehovah departed from Saul" (1Sa 16:13-14). David prays "take not Thy Holy Spirit from me" (Ps 51:11). Israel "vexed God's Holy Spirit," though He had "put His Holy Spirit within" Moses, Israel's leader, and "the Spirit of Jehovah" had "caused Israel to rest" in the promised land after his wilderness wanderings (Isa 63:11-12,14).
He is invoked in prayer to revive Israel long dead spiritually and politically (Eze 37:9): "Come, O Life breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live." Song 4:16, the Heavenly Bridegroom calls for (Joh 14:16) the Holy Spirit first as the" N. wind" to "awake," i.e. arise strongly as a Reprover (Joh 16:8-11), then like the S. wind to "come" gently as the Comforter (Joh 14:16). He first clears away the mists of gloom, error, unbelief, and sin, which intercept the light of the Sun of righteousness; then He infuses spiritual warmth, causing the "spices" (i.e. graces) to "flow out" (2Co 4:6). The coming renewal or "regeneration" of the earth shall be through God's "sending forth His creating Spirit" (Ps 104:30; Isa 32:15). The restorations after the flood, and on a smaller scale every spring after winter's deadness, are an earnest of it (Mt 19:28; Re 21:5).
At the opening of New Testament it is written respecting our Lord's body "that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 1:20); and to Mary herself the angel said, "the Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee" (Lu 1:35). His personal agency is marked by His "descending in a bodily shape like a dove" upon Christ at His baptism (Lu 3:22; Joh 1:32-33). His office is distinguished from that of Christ, and yet identified with it: "I will pray the Father, and He shall give you ANOTHER Comforter ... the Spirit of truth .... I will not leave you comfortless, I will come to you." The Father "sends the Holy Spirit the Comforter in Christ's name," (i.e. representing Christ: Christ absent in the flesh, that He may be more than ever present in Spirit): Joh 14:16-18,26. The Father gives, promises, and sends Him, but is not sent.
The Son must go that He may come (Joh 16:7-14), so that "it is expedient" for the church that Christ should go away, in order that Christ's finished work may be applied to the soul by the Holy Spirit (Joh 7:39). "He shall receive ... take of Mine, and show it unto you." The Son "sends" forth "the Spirit of truth which proceedeth from the Father" (Joh 15:26). The Constantinopolitan Council (A.D. 381) therefore added to the Nicene Creed "who proceedeth from the Father." The western churches added "and from the Son," which Scripture sanctions, though originally inserted by Reccared, king of a portion of Spain, A.D. 589, at the third council of Toledo; opposed by Leo III., bishop of Rome; accepted by Pope Nicholas I.; but always rejected by the eastern churches. His Godhead, distinct personality, and oneness with the Father and the Son, are implied in the baptismal formula enjoined by Christ (Mt 28:19).
As Christ intercedes for us in heaven, so the Holy Spirit intercedes in us on earth, "for we know not what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And He that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because He maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God" (Ro 8:26); thus He "helpeth our infirmities," and is the Paraclete in both senses, as Intercessor and Comforter. He calls and qualifies ministers for their work. Ac 13:1-2, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them." He makes them "overseers over the flock" (Ac 20:28). He "hears," "speaks," "teaches," "guides into all truth," "glorifies Christ," "receives of Christ's things," namely, from the Father and Son, "and shows them," "brings all Christ's words to His people's remembrance," "shows things to come," "knoweth the things of God," "searcheth all things, yea the deep things of God," and "reveals them" to the Spirit taught (1Co 2:9-15); therefore is divine.
Ananias' "lying" to Him is called "lying unto God" (Ac 5:3-4,9), and "tempting (putting to the proof) the Spirit of the Lord." "Where He is, there is liberty" (2Co 3:17). The writers of Holy Scripture "spoke as they were moved by the Holy, Spirit," "not by the will of man" (2Pe 1:21). "The Spirit of Jehovah spoke by David" (2Sa 23:2), and "God testified against Israel by His Spirit in His prophets," and "gave His good Spirit to instruct them" (Ne 9:30,20). The sin against Him is unpardonable, whereas sin against the Son is pardonable; because the former is against Him who alone can make the Son's work effectual to each soul (Mt 12:31-32). "Except a man be born of the Spirit he cannot enter the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:5). "God sends," in the case of His sons by adoption, "the Spirit of His Son into their hearts crying, Abba, Father" (Ga 4:6; Ro 8:15,17).
They are "led by the Spirit of God" who "beareth witness with their spirit, that they are the children of God." "After they have believed, they are sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance until the (final) redemption of the purchased possession" (Eph 1:13-14; also 2Co 1:21-22). The sanctification of believers is His especial work (2Th 2:13; 1Pe 1:2). We are warned not to "grieve" or "quench" Him (Eph 4:30; 1Th 5:19). Between Christ's ascension and return continues the dispensation of the Spirit; the true church is now "the temple of the Holy Spirit," in which believers are "living stones" "builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit" (Eph 2:22); "living in the Spirit and walking in the Spirit" (Ga 5:25); "by one Spirit baptized into one body ... and made to drink into one Spirit," for "no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Spirit" (1Co 12:3,13; 6:19; 3:16-17; 2Co 3:8; Ac 19:1-5).
All the various spiritual gifts and graces "that one and the selfsame Spirit worketh, dividing to every man severally as He will" (1Co 12:11; Ga 5:22). In Old Testament the law was in the foreground, the Holy Spirit less prominent; in New Testament the Holy Spirit is prominent, the law in the background. Jesus was anointed with the Spirit without measure; we receive a measure out "of His fullness" (Joh 1:16; 3:34). Jesus by His unction became Messiah or Christ (Isa 61:1). We receive a share of this "unction," whereby "we know all things" needful for salvation (1Jo 2:20).
The full outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Israel and on the nations is yet future (Isa 44:3; 36:22; Zec 12:10; Joe 2:28), of which the earnest was given on Pentecost (Ac 2:16,21); the law of God, which is love, being written on the heart, instead of on stone as the Decalogue (Jer 31:33-34; Heb 8:8,12; 10:16-17; 2Co 3:3). The triune benediction puts the Holy Spirit on a level with the Father and the Son, one God. So Re 1:4-5, where "the Seven Spirits before God's throne," coming between God "who is, was, and is to come," and Jesus Christ, can only mean the ONE sevenfold divine Spirit (Isa 11:2-3).
And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
And when they came thither to the hill, behold, a company of prophets met him; and the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them.
Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah. But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.
The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
Thou gavest also thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst.
Yet many years didst thou forbear them, and testifiedst against them by thy spirit in thy prophets: yet would they not give ear: therefore gavest thou them into the hand of the people of the lands.
Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth.
Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits.
And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD; And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears:
Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest.
Then came Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, that was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.
For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring:
The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound;
But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them. Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where is he that put his holy Spirit within him?
Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where is he that put his holy Spirit within him? That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name?
As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the LORD caused him to rest: so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.
But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.
And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:
And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.
But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.
Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.
And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.
And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace.
And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.
Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;
And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;
And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. read more. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you.
But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:
Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:
And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: Of sin, because they believe not on me;
Of sin, because they believe not on me; Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more;
Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more; Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. read more. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.
But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;
And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.
But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land? Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.
Then Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? behold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out.
Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.
And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples, He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. read more. And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism. Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.
And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.
But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. read more. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man.
Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.
What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?
Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.
For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.
Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,
If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.
In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.
In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.
And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.
For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God.
But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth.
But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:
For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:
For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.
This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them; And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.
For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.
John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne; And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,
And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.