Son and successor of Jeohiakim, king of Judah, B. C. 509, reigned three months, and was then carried away to Babylon, where he was imprisoned for thirty-six years, and then released and favored by Evil-merodach, 2Ki 24:6-16; 25:27; 2Ch 3:9-10. In this last passage he is said to have been eight years old at the commencement of his reign. If the text has not here been altered from eighteen years, as it stands in the first passage, we may conclude that he reigned ten years conjointly with his father. He is also called Coniah, and Jeconiah, 1Ch 3:16; Jer 27:20; 37:1. The prediction in Jer 22:30, signified that no son of his should occupy the throne, 1Ch 3:17-18; Mt 1:12.
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2Ch 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah (Jer 22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all (2Ki 24:12-16; Jer 52:28). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer 52:31,33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" (Jer 52:32-34).
("appointed by Jehovah, or he whom Jehovah establishes or fortifies" (Keil).) JECONIAH, CONIAH. Son of Jehoiakim and Nehushta; at 18 succeeded his father, and was king of Judah for three months and ten days; 20th king from David. In 2Ch 36:9 his age is made "eight" at his accession, so Septuagint, Vulgate. But a few Hebrew manuscripts, Syriac and Arabic, read "eighteen" here also; it is probably a transcriber's error. The correctness of eighteen, not eight, is proved by Eze 19:5-9, where he appears as "going up and down among the lions, catching the prey, devouring men, knowing the widows" (margin) of the men so devoured; unless Jehoiakim is meant. The term "whelp" appears to apply more to his son Jehoiachin, who moreover answers better to the description of the mother (Judah) "taking another of her whelps, and making him a young lion."
Lord A. C. Hervey prefers "eight," from Mt 1:11. "Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren about the time they were carried away to Babylon," fixing his birth to the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion (2Ki 24:1), namely, three years after Jehoiakim's accession, and eight before his reign ended and Jehoiachin succeeded; but Matthew's language hardly justifies this; Jeremiah's language implies Jehoiachin was a "man," and capable of having a "child" (2Ki 22:20,20). Jerusalem was an easy prey to Nebuchadnezzar at this time, Judah having been wasted for three or four years by Chaldaean, Ammonite, and Moabite bands, sent by Nebuchadnezzar (as Jehovah's executioner of judgment) in consequence of Jehoiakim's rebellion. Egypt, after its defeat at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, could not interpose (2Ki 23:7-17).
After sending his servants (generals distinct from the Chaldaean and other bands) to besiege Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar in person came (2Ch 36:10 margin) at the turn of the year, i.e. spring, in the eighth year of his reign, counting from the time that his father transferred the command of the army against Necho to him (so that his first coincides with the fourth of Jehoiakim, Jer 25:1). Jehoiachin seeing the impossibility of resistance made a virtue of necessity by going out to Nebuchadnezzar, he, the queen mother (who, as the king was only 18, held chief power; Jer 13:18 undesignedly coincides with and confirms the history, "Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves," etc.), servants, princes, and eunuchs (margin).
Nebuchadnezzar, after Jehoiakim's rebellion (notwithstanding his agreement at Nebuchadnezzar's first advance to be his vassal) (2Ki 24:1; Da 1:1), would not trust his son Jehoiachin, but carried him away, the queen mother, his wives, chamberlains, and all the men of might, 7,000, and 1,000 crafts. men and smiths; fulfilling Jeremiah's prophecy (Jer 22:24, etc.), He had already taken at the first siege of Jerusalem in Jehoiakim's third year part of the vessels of God's house (Da 1:1-2; 2Ch 36:7) and put them in the house of his god in Babylon, namely, the smaller vessels of solid gold, basins, goblets, knives, tongs, etc., which Cyrus restored (Ezr 1:7, etc.). Now he cut the gold off (not "cut in pieces," 2Ki 24:13) the larger vessels which were plated, the altar of burnt offering, the table of shewbread, and the ark, so that at the third conquest of Jerusalem under Zedekiah there were only the large brazen vessels of the court remaining, beside a few gold and silver basins and firepans (2Ki 25:13-17).
Nebuchadnezzar also carried off the treasures of Jeconiah's house (2Ki 24:13), "as Jehovah had spoken" to Hezekiah long before (2Ki 20:17; Jer 15:13; 17:3; 29:2). The inhabitants carried off were the best not only in means but in character. In 2Ki 24:14 they are said to be 10,000; the details are specified in 2Ki 24:15-16; "none remained save the poorest sort of the people of the land," having neither wealth nor skill to raise war, and therefore giving Nebuchadnezzar no fear of rebellion. The "princes" (satire) are the king's great court officials; "the mighty men of valor" (gibbowrey hachail, "mighty men of wealth," same Hebrew as 2Ki 15:20) are men of property, rather than prowess: 2Ki 15:14. In 2Ki 15:16 "men of might" (anshey hachail) may mean the same, but nowsh is a low man; I think therefore it means "men of the army," as in Eze 37:10, and is defined by "all that were strong and apt for war," 7,000.
The craftsmen (masons, smiths, and carpenters) and locksmiths (including weapon makers, hamasgeer), were 1,000; so the "princes" or king's officials, "the mighty men of wealth," and "the mighty of the land" (uley haarets), i.e. heads of tribes and families found in Jerusalem (including the nation's spiritual heads, priests and prophets, with Ezekiel: Jer 29:1; Eze 1:1) must have been 2,000, to make up the "ten thousand." In Jer 52:28 the number is 3,023, but that was the number carried away "in the seventh year," "in the eighth year" of Nebuchadnezzar the 10,000 were carried away. The 1,000 "craftsmen" may be exclusive of the 10,000. Evidently, the 4,600 in all mentioned (Jer 52:30) as carried away do not include the general multitude and the women and children (Jer 52:15; 39:9; 2Ki 25:11), for otherwise the number would be too small, since the numbers who returned were 42,360 (Ezra 2; Nehemiah 7).
Jehoiachin wore prison garments for 36 years, until at the death of Nebuchadnezzar, having been for a time sharer of his imprisonment (Jer 52:31-34), "in the 12th month, the 25th day of the month (in 2Ki 25:27 'the 27th,' the day when the decree for his elevation, given on the 25th, was carried into effect) lifted up the head of Jehoiachin (compare Ge 40:13-20; Ps 3:3; 27:6), and brought him forth out of prison, and spoke kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon, and changed his prison garments (for royal robes; compare Zec 3:1-5; Lu 15:22), and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life (compare 2Sa 9:13); and there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, every day its portion (compare margin 1Ki 8:59) until the day of his death." (See EVIL-MERODACH.)
God, in sparing and at last elevating him, rewarded his having surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar, which was God's will (Jer 38:17; 27:6-12; compare 2Ki 24:12). In the fourth year of his uncle Zedekiah (so called by Nebuchadnezzar instead of Mattaniah), false prophets encouraged the popular hope of the return of Jehoiachin to Jerusalem (Jer 28:4).(See HANANIAH.) But God's oath made this impossible: "as I live, though Coniah were the signet (ring seal, Song 8:6; Hag 2:23) upon My right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence." "Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? (he was idolized by the Jews). Is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure?" Jeremiah hereby expresses their astonishment that one from whom they expected so much should be now so utterly east aside. Contrast the believer, 2Ti 2:21; compare as to Israel Ho 8:8, to which Ro 9:20-23 gives the answer.
Jeremiah (Jer 22:28) mentions distinctly "his seed," therefore "childless" in Jer 22:30 means having no direct lineal heir to the throne. One of his sons was Zedekiah (Zidkijah), distinct in name and fact from Zedekiah (Zidkijahu), Jeconiah's uncle, whose succession after Jehoiachin would never cause him to be called "his son" (1Ch 3:16). This Zedekiah is mentioned separately from the other sons of Jehoiachin, Assir and Salathiel, because probably he was not led to Babylon as the other sons, but died in Judea (Keil). In Lu 3:27 Shealtiel (Salathiel) is son of Neri of the lineage of David's son Nathan, not Solomon. Probably Assir left a daughter, who, according to the law of heiresses (Nu 36:13,8-9), married a man of a family of her paternal tribe, namely, Neri descended from Nathan. Shealtiel is called Assir's "son" (1Ch 3:17), i.e. grandson.
So "Jechonias (it is said Mt 1:12) begat Salathiel," i.e. was his forefather. Jecamiah Assir, as often occurs in genealogies, is skipped in Matthew. (See JECAMIAH); GENEALOGIES.) A party of the captives at Babylon also, through the false prophets, expected restoration with Jehoiachin and Nebuchadnezzar's overthrow. This accounts for the Babylonian king inflicting so terrible a punishment (c
JEHOIACHIN, king of Judah, ascended the throne when Nebuchadrezzar was on the march to punish the rebellion of Jehoiakim. On the approach of the Chald
Son and successor of Jehoiakim king of Judah. According to 2Ki 24:8 he began to reign when he was eighteen years of age, but 2Ch 36:9 says 'eight years' (one being apparently an error of the copyist). He reigned but three months, B.C. 599, when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, and the great captivity of Judah was accomplished. Jehoiachin was carried to Babylon and kept in prison thirty-six years; on the accession of Evil-merodach, B.C. 561, he was released from prison and exalted above the other captive kings, and he ate bread before the king all the days of his life. 2Ki 24:6-15; 25:27; 2Ch 36:8-9; Jer 52:31; Eze 1:2. He is called JECONIAH in 1Ch 3:16-17; Es 2:6; Jer 24:1; 27:20; 28:4 (where his return from Babylon is falsely prophesied of); Jer 29:2. He is also called CONIAH in Jer 22:24,28; 37:1, and JECHONIAS in Mt 1:11-12.
(whom Jehovah has appointed), son of Jehoiakim, and for three months and ten days king of Judah. (B.C. 597.) At his accession Jerusalem was quite defenseless, and unable to offer any resistance to the army which Nebuchadnezzar sent to besiege it.
In a very short time Jehoiachin surrendered at discretion; and he, and the queen-mother, and all his servants, captains and officers, came out and gave themselves up to Nebuchadnezzar, who carried them, with the harem and the eunuchs, to Babylon.
There he remained a prisoner, actually in prison and wearing prison garments, for thirty-six years, viz., till the death of Nebuchadnezzar, when Evilmerodach, succeeding to the throne of Babylon, brought him out of prison, and made him sit at this own table. The time of his death is uncertain.
JEHOIACHIN, otherwise called Coniah, Jer 22:24, and Jeconiah, 1Ch 3:17, the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and grandson of Josiah. He ascended the throne, and reigned only three months. It seems he was born about the time of the first Babylonish captivity, A.M. 3398, when Jehoiakim, or Eliakim, his father, was carried to Babylon. Jehoiakim returned from Babylon, and reigned till A.M. 3405, when he was killed by the Chaldeans, in the eleventh year of his reign; and was succeeded by this Jehoiachin, who reigned alone three months and ten days; but he reigned about ten years in conjunction with his father. Thus 2Ki 24:8, is reconciled with 2Ch 36:9. In the former of these passages, he is said to have been eighteen when he began to reign, and in Chronicles only eight; that is, he was only eight when he began to reign with his father, and eighteen when he began to reign alone. He was a bad man, and did evil in the sight of the Lord, Jer 22:24. The time of his death is uncertain; and the words of the Prophet Jer 22:30, are not to be taken in the strictest sense; since he was the father of Salathiel and others, 1Ch 3:17-18; Mt 1:12.