(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram (2Ch 22:11), and took an active part along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his ancestors are described in 2Ki 11:2; 12:2; 2Ch 22:11; 23:21. He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among the kings of Judah (2Ch 24:15-16). He is said to have been one hundred and thirty years old.
2. Benaiah's son, named after his grandfather; succeeded to Ahithophel as one of David's chief counselors (1Ch 27:34).
3. Amariah's successor in the high-priesthood. Married, king Jehoram's daughter, sister of king Ahaziah, on whose death by Jehu's hands the queen mother Athaliah slew all the seed royal; but Jehosheba stole Joash the youngest son, and with her husband hid him in the house of God six years. (See JEHOSHEBA; ATHALIAH; JOASH.) Then when Athaliah's tyranny and foreign idolatries had disgusted the people, he with great prudence and tact made a secret compact in the temple with the five captains of the king's body guard (literally, the executioners and runners), Azariah son of Jeroham, Ishmael, Azariah the son of Obed, Maaseiah, and Elishaphat.
These summoned the Levites and heads of families throughout Judah, probably under pretext of a festal celebration. Then Jehoiada with the whole assembly "made a covenant with the king in the temple, saying, Behold the king's son shall reign, as Jehovah hath said of the sons of David" (2Ch 23:3), or, as 2Ki 11:4 expresses it, "Jehoiada made a covenant with the rulers over hundreds, the captains, and the guard, taking an oath of them and showing them the king's son." The Levite temple servants entering upon the sabbath service (relieving guard), and those being relieved, Jehoiada directed, under the captains of the royal body "guard" (2Ki 11:11, halberdiers) to keep watch, the former in three divisions, the latter in two. The first of the three divisions stood by the gate Sur (2 Kings 11) or Jesod (2 Chronicles 23 "the foundation," a gate in the outer court at the hollow of the Tyropeon or the Kedron).
The second to guard the king's house (2Ch 23:5, not the royal palace, but the young king's place of residence in the temple), at the gate behind the guard, i.e. the gate of the guard (2Ki 11:6,19), the gate leading from the temple court to the royal palace on Zion; or else this division had to guard the royal avenue to the temple from the palace outside, they watching from a post in the outer courts what went on in the palace. The third to guard the house (the temple) "that it be not broken down" (Keil, "to ward off" intruders), "to be guards ('porters') of the thresholds" (of the ascent to the temple, 1Ch 9:19 margin, 2Ch 23:4 margin). Jehoiada furnished them with David's weapons stored in the temple. Some of the royal "guard," on whom the captains could rely, were with the Levites (2Ch 23:12; 2Ki 11:13).
Those relieved on the sabbath, whom Jehoiada still retained (for "he dismissed not the courses," 2Ch 23:8) kept watch of Jehovah's house about (in respect to) the king (2Ki 11:7) in two divisions; these answer to (2Ch 23:5) "all the people (the remainder besides the three bodies under the captains) in the courts of the house of Jehovah" (2Ki 11:13,19). The whole royal body guard, probably after Athaliah's slaughter, joined the people in the courts, to lead the king thence to the palace; at all events the relieved Levite guards were with the people in the courts, and probably some of the royal guards who took share in the plot. 2 Kings emphasizes the part performed by the royal body guard; 2 Chronicles that performed by the Levites: there is no irreconcilable discrepancy. The guard and people kept to the courts, none but the priests and consecrated Levites entered the holy place (2Ch 23:6).
Any coming within the ranks ("ranges," 2Ki 11:8) of the guards so stationed, i.e. within the temple precincts (2Ch 23:7), were to be put to death. The captains over hundreds (2Ki 11:9) answer to "all Judah," namely, "chiefs of the fathers" (2Ch 23:2,8), with "the Levites." He "dismissed not the courses" (who had charge of the temple service, 1 Chronicles 24-26), answering to 2Ki 11:7, "all you that go forth ... shall keep the watch." Jehoiada, having enthroned Joash, restored the temple worship as David had settled it, it having been neglected under the idolatrous Athaliah. Mattan the Baal priest alone was slain by the people when breaking Baal's images and altars. Jehoiada made a solemn covenant between the king and all the people, "that they should be the Lord's people." Joash repaired the house by his help, "doing that which was right in the sight of Jehovah" all the days "wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him." Joash ordered "the money of the dedicated things" to be applied to the repair of the temple, namely,
(1) "the money of every one that passeth" the census (not "the account), half a shekel, Ex 30:13;
(3) "all the money that cometh into any man's heart to bring into the house of Jehovah," freewill offerings.
When, in the 23rd year of Jonah's reign, the temple was still not repaired, through the Levites' and priests' dilatoriness, he took the money and the repairs out of their hands; "the priests consented to receive no more money of the people (i.e. for repairs), neither to repair." Jehoiada then took a chest, with a hole made in the lid, and set it against the outer wall beside the burnt offering altar on the right, by the S. entrance into Jehovah's house, to receive the people's freewill offerings for the repairs. No golden or silver vessels, basins, knives, etc., were made with the money, until the repairs were first completed (2Ki 12:13, compare the complementary, not contradictory, statement 2Ch 24:14). The trespass money and freewill gifts to the priest, for his trouble in offering the sin offerings, the priests retained; this money did not go to the repairs. Jehoiada died (2Ch 24:15-16) at last, 130 years old, "full of days."
But there is perhaps an error; Lord A. C. Hervey would read 83. Otherwise he would be 95 at Joash's accession, supposing him to live 35 of Joash's 40 years of reign, which is improbable; fifteen years before, when Jehoram was 32 (whose daughter he married), he would have been 80 (2Ch 21:5; 22:1,12). Disinterested patriotism, loyalty where loyalty was at immense risks, tact and practical wisdom, power of influencing others, above all deep reverence (e.g. his jealous care, amidst the irregularities of a revolution, that none should "come into Jehovah's house save the priests and ministering Levites," also that Athaliah should be thrust forth outside "the ranges," and not be slain "in the house of Jehovah," 2Ch 23:6,14), and zeal for the Lord's honour and the purity of His worship, were conspicuous in Jehoiada.
His death was the fatal turning point of Joash's declension. The religion that leans on man only will fail when the earthly prop is removed. Jehoiada had saved Joash's life and throne, and had been God's providential instrument in preventing the extinction of David's line, which then hung upon the one seemingly frail thread, but which could not be broken since to it belonged the promises of Messiah; he had stifled the idolatry transplanted into Judah by Joram's marriage into apostate Ahab's house, and restored Jehovah's worship. He therefore was honoured (1Sa 2:30) with the unique privilege of interment "among the kings in the city of David, because he had done good in Israel, both toward God and toward His (God's) house." The fickle people, princes, and king soon forgot all his benefits, and slew his son Zechariah "in the court of the Lord's house," (the very scene of Jehoiada's reverent care to remove pollution, 2Ch 23:14, in restoring the throne and the temple,) for his faithful reproofs of their idolatry (2Ch 24:15-16,20-22). (See ZECHARIAH.)
4. Second priest (sagan) to Seraiah, the high priest. Either carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, or deposed by the Jewish rulers as a favorer of Jeremiah. This accords with the false prophet at Babylon, Shemaiah's, accusation by letter against Zephaniah, who was promoted to Jehoiada's place, for ingratitude to God in not apprehending Jeremiah, seeing that (in Shemaiah's view) "the Lord had made him priest in the stead of Jehoiada the priest" for this very purpose (Jer
1. Father of Benaiah, the successor of Joab, 2Sa 8:18; 20:23 etc. It is probably the same man that is referred to in 1Ch 12:27; 27:34, where we should probably read 'Benaiah the son of Jehoiada.' 2. The chief priest of the Temple at the time of Ahaziah's death (2Ki 11:4 etc.). The Book of Chronicles makes him the husband of the princess Jehosheba (or Jehoshabeath, 2Ch 22:11), by whose presence of mind the infant prince Jehoash escaped the massacre by which Athaliah secured the throne for herself. Jehoiada must have been privy to the concealment of the prince, and it was he who arranged the coup d'
1. Father of Benaiah one of David's officers. 2Sa 8:18; 1Ki 1:8-44, etc. In 1Ch 27:5 he is called 'a chief priest,' which makes it possible that he is the same person as No. 3; but in the margin he is called 'principal officer.'
2. High priest during the usurpation of Athaliah. He preserved the life of Joash, the infant son of Ahaziah, and succeeded, with wisdom and energy, in placing him on the throne, and then caused the death of Athaliah. It is recorded that Joash did that which was right in the sight of the Lord all the days of Jehoiada; but on the death of the priest, the king forgot his kindness and slew Zechariah his son. 2Ki 11:4-17; 12:2,7,9; 2Ch 22:11; 23:1-18; 24:2-25.
3. Leader of the Aaronites (or 'prince of Aaron') who resorted to David at Hebron. 1Ch 12:27.
4. Son of Benaiah and one of David's counsellors. 1Ch 27:34.
5. Son of Paseah: he repaired the 'old gate ' of Jerusalem. Ne 3:6.
6. Priest mentioned by the false prophet Shemaiah in his letters against Jeremiah. Jer 29:26.
1. Father of Benaiah, David's well-known warrior.
1Kin 1 and 2 passim;
etc. (B.C. before 1046.)
2. Leader of the Aaronites, i.e. the priests; who joined David at Hebron.
3. According to
son of Benaiah; but in all probability Benaiah the sons of Jehoiada is meant. Probably an error in copying.
4. High priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of Judah, B.C. 884-878, and during the greater portion of the forty-years reign of Joash. He married Jehosheba; and when Athaliah slew all the seed royal to Judah after Ahaziah had been put to death by Jehu, he and his wife stole Joash from among the king's sons and hid him for six years in the temple, and eventually replaced him on the throne of his ancestors. [ATHALIAH] The destruction of Baal-worship and the restoration of the temple were among the great works effected by Jehoiada. He died B.C. 834.
5. Second priest, or sagan, to Seraiah the high priest.
6. Son of Paseach, who assisted to repair the old gate of Jerusalem.