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Reference: Jude


See JUDAS 2.

The EPISTLE OF JUDE, assigned conjecturally to the year 66 A. D., is a fervid and vehement voice of warning against following certain false teachers in their errors and corruptions, and so sharing their awful doom. It resembles the second epistle of Peter. As to the quotation in Jude 1:14-15, see ENOCH 2.

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Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Mt 13:55; Joh 14:22; Ac 1:13), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Mt 10:3; Mr 3:18); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Mt 10:4; Mr 3:19). He who is called "the brother of James" (Lu

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JUDE LEBBAEUS, THADDAEUS. Jude calls himself "servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James", namely, the apostle James "the Lord's brother" (a title which James omits in humility, as he was strictly only cousin of Christ), bishop of Jerusalem (compare Ga 1:19). (See JAMES.) Similarly Jude was both an apostle and brother of our Lord. All Christ's brethren were not apostles, only James and Jude, sons of Alphaeus or Clopas and Mary. James being better known, Jude designates himself "brother of James." Like Paul in epistles to Philippians, Thessalonians, and Philemon, Jude omits his apostleship. A forger would have been sure to head the epistle with the designation "apostle."

Jude is distinguished from Judas Iscariot by the names Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus, i.e. courageous, from Hebrew leeb "heart," thad "breast," or hodah "praise" (Adai is the name in Syriac): Mt 10:3; Mr 3:18. Luke and John writing later, when no confusion with Judas Iscariot was likely, call him "Judas." The only notice of him is in Joh 14:22, where, not understanding Jesus' promise (Joh 14:21), Judas (not Iscariot) asked "Lord, how is it that Thou wilt manifest Thyself unto us and not unto the world?" His position in the last group of four among the twelve implies, like his question, low views at that time of the spirituality of Messiah's kingdom.

Eusebius tells that Abgarus, king of Edessa, being sick sent begging Jesus to come and heal him; the Lord replied, praising his faith because, though he had not seen, he believed, and promising when He should ascend to send one of His disciples to heal and give him life. Thomas then was inspired to send Thaddaeus. Such a message may have been sent verbally, and its substance afterward written (compare 22/type/nheb'>Mt 15:22; 2 Kings 5). Hegesippus (Eusebius, E. H. iii. 20) states that when the emperor Domitian inquired after David's posterity, grandsons of Jude "the Lord's brother" were brought before him; they stated their possessions were 39 acres, and that they paid him taxes thereout and lived by labour, pointing as a proof to their hard hands. They added, Christ's kingdom is not of this world, but heavenly, and will be manifested when He shall come again in glory.

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JUDE, EPISTLE OF, a canonical book of the New Testament, written against the heretics, who, by their impious doctrines and disorderly lives, corrupted the faith and good morals of Christians. The author of this epistle, called Judas, and also Thaddeus and Lebbeus, was one of the twelve Apostles; he was the son of Alpheus, brother of James the less, and one of those who were called our Lord's brethren. We are not informed when, or how, he was called to be an Apostle; but it has been conjectured, that, before his vocation to the Apostleship, he was a husbandman, that he was married, and that he had children. The only account we have of him in particular, is that which occurs in Joh 14:21-23. It is not unreasonable to suppose that, after having received, in common with other Apostles, extraordinary gifts at the pentecost, he preached the Gospel for some time in several parts of the land of Israel, and wrought miracles in the name of Christ. And, as his life seems to have been prolonged, it is probable that he afterward left Judea, and went abroad preaching the Gospel to Jews and Gentiles in other countries. Some have said that he preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country. But we have no account of his travels upon which we can rely; and it may be questioned whether he was a martyr.

In the early ages of Christianity, several rejected the Epistle of St. Jude, because the apocryphal books of Enoch, and the ascension of Moses, are quoted in it. Nevertheless, it is to be found in all the ancient catalogues of the sacred writings; and Clement, of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen quote it as written by Jude, and reckon it among the books of sacred Scripture. In the time of Eusebius it was generally received. As to the objections that have been urged against its authority, Dr. Lardner suggests that there is no necessity for supposing that St. Jude quoted a book called Enoch or Enoch's prophecies; and even allowing that he did quote it, he gives it no authority; it was no canonical book of the Jews; and if such a book existed among the Jews, it was apocryphal, and yet there might be in it some right things. Instead of referring to a book called the "Assumption or Ascension of Christ," which probably was a forgery much later than his time, it is much more credible that St. Jude refers to the vision in Zec 3:1-3. It has been the opinion of several writers, and, among others, of Hammond and Benson, that St. Jude addressed his epistle to the Jewish Christians; but Dr. Lardner infers, from the words of the inscription of the epistle, verses, 1, 3, that it was designed for the use of all in general who had embraced the Christian religion. The last mentioned author supposes that this epistle was written A.D. 64, 65, or 66.

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