tower. (1.) A strongly-fortified place 12 miles from Pelusium, in the north of Egypt (Jer 44:1; 46:14). This word is rendered "tower" in Eze 29:10, but the margin correctly retains the name Migdol, "from Migdol to Syene;" i.e., from Migdol in the north to Syene in the south, in other words, the whole of Egypt.
("a tower".) Ex 14:2. Now Bir Suweis, two miles from Suez, having wells of water, for Magdal or Maktal (Migdol), visited by Sethos I returning from a Syrian campaign, was built over a large well (Chabas, Voyage d'un Egyptien, 286). Israel encamped between Migdol and the sea. (See EXODUS.) Migdol thus was between Pihahiroth and Baalzephon. Mentioned also in Jer 44:1; 46:14; Eze 29:10, "I will make Egypt desolate from Migdol (in the extreme N., translated so for 'tower') to Syene" (Seveneh in the farthest S.); so Eze 30:6.
A Semitic word meaning 'tower,' borrowed by the Egyptians of the New Kingdom, and common as a word and in place-names. 1. Ex 14:2; Nu 33:7, on the border of Egypt, near the spot where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea: probably a mere guardhouse on the road. 2. Eze 29:10; 30:6, where 'from Migdol to Syene' is the true reading, instead of 'from the tower of Seveneh.' Here Migdol is the N.E. extremity of Egypt, as Seveneh is the S. It may be identical with Magdolo in a Roman Itinerary, perhaps at the now deserted site of Tell el-Her, 12 miles south of Pelusium. 3. In Jer 44:1; 46:14 Migdol is mentioned with Tahpanhes and Noph (Memphis) as a habitation of the Jews, and is probably the same as No. 2.
F. Ll. Griffith.
Place near to which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea. Ex 14:2; Nu 33:7. Apparently distinct from another Migdol in the north of Egypt. Jer 44:1; 46:14. In Eze 29:10, margin, 'from Migdol to Syene' implies from north to south of Egypt.
(tower), the name of one of two places on the eastern frontier of Egypt.
1. A Migdol is mentioned int he account of the exodus,
near the head of the Red Sea.
2. A Migdol is spoken of by Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The latter prophet mentions it as a boundary-town, evidently on the eastern border.
In the prophecy of Jeremiah the Jews in Egypt are spoken of as dwelling at Migdol.
It seems plain, from its being spoken of with Memphis, and from Jews dwelling there, that this Midgol was an important town.
MIGDOL. Moses writes, that when the Israelites came out of Egypt, the Lord commanded them to encamp over against Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-Zephon, Ex 14:2. It is not known whether this Migdol was a city, or only a fortress: probably the latter, in which a garrison was stationed.