Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its sound (1Ch 15:28; 2Ch 15:14; Ps 98:6; Ho 5:8). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Da 3:5,7,10,15, the word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2Sa 6:5 (Heb. mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
A horn trumpet used for war, for signals, for proclaiming the Jubilee and new year. The shophar was long and straight; the qeren (Daniel 3) crooked. Shophar is generally translated "trumpet," qeren "cornet" (Daniel 3). God appointed the making of two silver trumpets. They were 120 in Solomon's time (2Ch 5:12), and were employed for other purposes besides those originally contemplated, namely, in the temple orchestra. The first day of the seventh month was "the memorial of blowing of trumpets" (Le 23:24; Nu 29:1).
The beginning of the civil new year was thus ushered in with joyful thanksgivings for the mercies of the old year, the Levites chanting Psalm 81. This usage, however, cannot be proved so early as Moses' time, when the beginning of the (religious) year was fixed at the spring equinox, the period of the institution of the Passover, the month Abib (Ex 12:2). The rabbis represent the seventh month as the anniversary of creation. The first day "memorial of blowing of trumpets" preluded the tenth day yearly great "atonement."
In Da 3:5-15 the word is qeren and signifies 'horn or cornet.' In 2Sa 6:5 the word is manaanim, and signifies an instrument that makes a tinkling sound on being shaken, as a 'sistrum.' In the four other places the word is shophar, which is often translated 'trumpet.' 1Ch 15:28; 2Ch 15:14; Ps 98:6; Ho 5:8.