desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits (Ex 3:1; 17:6; 33:6; Ps 106:19, etc.). The modern name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped for nearly a whole year. (See Sinai.)
Illustration: Mount Horeb
("dry, dried up".) The designation of the northern part of the Sinaitic range, so Rephidim is made to be situated in it (Ex 17:6). Sinai was the central mass of mountains including the particular peak from which the law was given. So the name "Sinai" is most used from Ex 19:11 to Nu 3:1, where Israel is described as at or about the scene of the giving of the law. But, in Deuteronomy, where Israel appears no longer in that region, "Horeb" is used. Sinai means "sharp pointed," "toothed" (Knobel), the point Ras Sufsafeh. (See EXODUS; SINAI.)
A mount closely connected with Sinai, and supposed to embrace the range of mountains lying about 28 30' N, between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba, whereas Sinai is one of the mountain peaks. Horeb was called 'the mountain of God.' Ex 3:1. It was where God had intercourse with Moses, and where He made a covenant with Israel. Near here also the golden calf was set up. Ex 17:6; 33:6; De 1:2,6,19; 4:10,15; 29:1; Ps 106:19. See SINAI.
See Sinai, or Sinai
HOREB, a mountain in Arabia Petraea, a part of which, or near to which, was Sinai. At Horeb God appeared to Moses in the burning bush, Ex 3:1, &c. Hither Elijah retired to avoid the persecution of Jezebel, 1Ki 19:8. Sinai and Horeb seem to be two parts of the same mountain; hence the law is sometimes said to be given there.