Reference: Judgment Hall
Gr. praitorion (Joh 18:28,33; 19:9; Mt 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mr 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. Ac 23:35). Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia.
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace court.
Latin praetorium Graecized (Joh 18:28,33; 19:9; Ac 23:35). It is translated Mt 27:27; Mr 15:16, "common hall"; and in Php 1:13 "palace." It is Pilate's residence when at Jerusalem, where Jesus was examined, scourged, and mocked. The Jews, to avoid defilement before the Passover, waited outside, near the judgment seat which was erected on the pavement before the Praetorium, and on which Pilate sat in pronouncing sentence. Probably the tower of Antonia was the Praetorium of Pilate.
Herod was then at Jerusalem, doubtless in his father's palace, which therefore is distinct from the Praetorium (Lu 23:7). However Josephus (B. J. 2:14, section 8) represents the Roman governor as sometimes residing in Herod's palace, and setting up his judgment seat in front of it. (See JERUSALEM.) In Ac 23:35 Herod's Praetorium was part of the magnificent buildings erected by king Herod (Josephus, Ant. 20:9, section 6, B. J. 1:21, section 5-8), used as the official residence and head quarters of Felix at Caesarea. "Palace," in Php 1:13, means the quarters of praetorian guards immediately attached to Caesar's palace on Mount Palatine (compare Php 4:22; Ac 28:16).
The word praetorium is so translated five times in the Authorized Version of the New Testament, and in those five passages it denotes two different places.
Joh 18:28,33; 19:9
it is the residence which Pilate occupied when he visited Jerusalem. The site of Pilate's praetorium in Jerusalem has given rise to much dispute, some supposing it to be the palace of King Herod, others the tower of Antonia; but it was probably the latter, which was then and long afterward the citadel of Jerusalem.
Herod's judgment hall or praetorium in Caesarea was doubtless a part of that magnificent range of buildings the erection of which by King Herod is described in Josephus. The word "palace," or "Caesar's court." in the Authorized Version of
is a translation of the same word praetorium. It may here have denoted the quarter of that detachment of the praetorian guards which was in immediate attendance upon the emperor, and had barracks in Mount Palatine at Rome.