1. A Hebrew prophet, Zec 12:12; a friend and counselor of David. He approved the king's purpose of building a temple to the lord, but by divine direction transferred this accomplishment to Solomon, 2Sa 7:1-17. By a fine parable, pointedly applied, he convicted David of his guilt in respect to Uriah and Bathsheba, 2Sa 12; Ps 51; and his bold fidelity here seems to have been appreciated by David, see NATHAN 2, and is worthy of everlasting remembrance. Solomon was probably educated under his care, 2Sa 12:25; and was effectually aided by him in his peaceful succession to the throne, 1Ki 1.1-53. He wrote some memorials, long since lost, of both David and Solomon, 1Ch 29:29; 2Ch 9:29. How long he lived under the reign of Solomon is unknown; but tow of his sons were high officers at court, 1Ki 4:5.
given. (1.) A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon (2Ch 9:29). He is first spoken of in connection with the arrangements David made for the building of the temple (2Sa 7:2-3,17), and next appears as the reprover of David on account of his sin with Bathsheba (2Sa 12:1-14). He was charged with the education of Solomon (2Sa 12:25), at whose inauguration to the throne he took a prominent part (1Ki 1:8,10-11,22-45). His two sons, Zabad (1Ch 2:36) and Azariah (1Ki 4:5) occupied places of honour at the king's court. He last appears in assisting David in reorganizing the public worship (2Ch 29:25). He seems to have written a life of David, and also a life of Solomon (1Ch 29:29; 2Ch 9:29).
(2.) A son of David, by Bathsheba (2Sa 5:14), whose name appears in the genealogy of Mary, the mother of our Lord (Lu 3:31).
(3.) Ezr 8:16.
("given by God".)
1. The prophet who gave David God's assurance of the perpetuity of his seed and throne (notwithstanding temporary chastening for iniquity). God by Nathan commended David's desire to build the temple, but reserved the accomplishment for his son Solomon, the type of Him who should build the true temple (2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17). Nathan speaking first of himself had said, "do all that is in thine heart" (compare 1Ki 8:18). God sometimes grants His children's requests in a form real, but not as they had proposed. His glory proves in the end to be their truest good, though their wishes for the time be crossed. Nathan convicted David of his sin in the case of Uriah by the beautiful parable of the poor man's lamb (2Sa 12:1-15,25; Psalm 51).
Nathan conveyed Jehovah's command to David, to name Solomon" Jedidiah," not as a mere appellation, but an assurance that Jehovah loved him. Nathan was younger than David, as he wrote with Ahijah the Shilonite and Iddo the seer" the acts of Solomon first and last" (2Ch 9:29). To Nathan David refers as having forbidden his building the temple on account of his having had "great wars" (2Ch 22:1-10; 28:2). Nathan secured the succession of Solomon by advising Bathsheba to remind David of his promise (1Ch 22:9, etc.), and to inform him of Adonijah's plot, and by himself venturing into the king's presence to follow up Bathsheba's statement. Nathan by David's direction with Zadok the priest brought Solomon to Gihon on the king's own mule, and anointed him king (1Ki 1:10-38).
Azariah son of Nathan was over the officers, and Zabud son of Nathan was the king's friend under Solomon (1Ki 4:5; 1Ch 27:33; 2Sa 15:37). A similarity between the apologue style of Solomon in Ec 9:14-16 and Nathan's in 2Sa 12:1-4 may be due to Nathan's influence. Nathan along with Gad wrote "the acts of David first and last" (1Ch 29:29). Nathan is designated by the later and higher title "the prophet," but" Gad and Samuel the seer" (compare 1Sa 9:9). His histories were doubtless among the materials from which the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles were compiled. His grave is shown at Halhul near Hebron.
2. Son of David and Bathsheba (1Ch 3:5; 14:4; 2Sa 5:14). Luke traces Christ's genealogy to David through Nathan (2Sa 3:31); as Matthew gives the succession to the throne, so Luke the parentage of Joseph, Jeconiah's line having failed as he died childless. (See GENEALOGY.) "The family of the house of David and the family of the house of Nathan" represent the highest and lowest of the royal order; as "the family of the house of Levi and the family of Shimei" represent the highest and lowest of the priestly order (Zec 12:12-13).
4. A head man who returned with Ezra on his second expedition, and whom Ezra despatched from his encampment at the river Ahava to the Jews at Casiphia, to get Levites and Nethinim for the temple (Ezr 8:16). Perhaps the same as the son of Bani who gave up his foreign wife (Ezr 10:39).
5. Son of Attai of Judah (1Ch 2:36).
1. Third son of David by Bath-sheba (2Sa 5:14, but note 2Sa 12:24). In Zec 12:12 the Nathan who is recognized as head of a house is probably David's son. In Lu 3:31 the genealogy of Jesus is traced through Nathan to David. 2. The prophet, a confidential adviser of David. The king desired to build the Temple, and Nathan at first agreed, but later received a revelation forbidding the enterprise (2Sa 7). The next appearance of Nathan is in connexion with the parable of the ewe lamb, by which David was self-convicted of his sin with Bath-sheba (2Sa 12:1-15). Later, in token that an atonement has been made, he adds to Solomon's name the significant title Jedidiah ('beloved of Jah'). The third service was rendered alike to David and to Solomon. Adonijab had planned a coup by which to grasp the sceptre, now falling from the hands of his aged father. It was Nathan's watchfulness that discovered the plot, and his ingenuity that saved the kingdom for Solomon (1Ki 1). It was fitting that a Life of David should come from this friendly hand (1Ch 29:29). His service to Solomon was recognized by the king, who appointed his sons, Azariab and Zabud, to important offices (1Ki 4:5). 3. Father of Igal, one of David's heroes (2Sa 23:36). The text of 1Ch 11:38 reads, 'Joel brother of Nathan.' 4. One of the cbief men who returned with Ezra (Ezr 8:15,1Es 8:44). 5. One of the Bani family, who had taken strange wives (Ezr 10:39); called in 1Es 9:34 Nathanias. 6. A Judahite (1Ch 2:36).
J. H. Stevenson.
2. The prophet, who held an influential position during the reigns of David and Solomon. He is first mentioned when David had in his heart to build a house to Jehovah. Nathan at first encouraged the proposition, but afterwards had a special message from God to direct David otherwise. It was Nathan who had to condemn David's conduct with respect to Bathsheba and her husband; he delicately brought the sin home to his conscience by means of a suited parable. He also took a prominent part in securing the throne for Solomon, 2Sa 7:2-17; 12:1-25; 1Ki 1:8-45; 1Ch 17:1-15; 2Ch 29:25; Ps. 51: title. He wrote a 'book' containing the Acts of David the king and of Solomon, which does not form a part of scripture. 1Ch 29:29; 2Ch 9:29.
3. Man of Zobah, father of Igal. 2Sa 23:36.
4. Father of Azariah and Zabud. 1Ki 4:5.
5. Son of Attai, and father of Zabad. 1Ch 2:36.
6. Brother of Joel, one of David's mighty men. 1Ch 11:38.
7. One who returned from exile. Ezr 8:16.
8. One who had married a strange wife. Ezr 10:39.
9. A chief man in Israel, whose family will mourn apart. Zec 12:12. Perhaps a reference to the family of No. 2.
1. An eminent Hebrew prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon. (B.C. 1015.) He first appears in the consultation with David about the building of the temple.
He next comes forward as the reprover of David for the sin with Bathsheba; and his famous apologue on the rich man and the ewe lamb, which is the only direct example of his prophetic power, shows it to have been of a very high order.
2. A son of David; one of the four who were borne to him by Bathsheba.
3. Son or brother of one of the members of David's guard.
4. One of the head men who returned from Babylon with Ezra on his second expedition.
1 Esdr. 8:44. It is not impossible that he may be the same with the "son of Bani."
NATHAN, a prophet of the Lord, who appeared in Israel in the time of King David, and had a great share in the confidence of this prince. His country is unknown, as also the time in which he began to prophesy. The first time we find him mentioned, is when David designed to build the temple, 2Sa 7:3, &c. We find him mentioned again in the affair of David and Bathsheba, when he faithfully reproved the king for his wicked conduct, 2Sa 12:1-14. And when Adonijah began to take upon him the state, and to assume the dignity of a sovereign, and to form a party in opposition to his brother Solomon, Nathan repaired to Bathsheba, and sent her immediately to the king with instructions what to say and while she was yet discoursing with the king, Nathan came in, reminded David of his promise, that Solomon should be his successor, and procured Solomon to be immediately anointed king of Israel.