5 occurrences in 5 dictionaries

Reference: Pledge


The Jewish law protected the poor who were obliged to give security for a loan or the fulfillment of a contract. If a man pawned his rove, the usual covering of the cool nights, it must be returned on the same day, Ex 22:26-27. The creditor could not enter a house and take what he pleased; and the millstone being a necessary of life, could not be taken, De 24:6,10-11. Compare Job 22:6; 24:3,7. Idolaters sometimes disregarded these prohibitions, Am 2:6-8. See LOANS. Pledges are necessary from the vicious, who cannot be trusted, Pr 20:16.

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The taking of a pledge for the re-payment of a loan was sanctioned by the Law, but a humanitarian provision was introduced to the effect that, when this pledge consisted of the large square outer garment or cioak called simlah, it must be returned before nightfali, since this garment often formed the only covering of the poor at night (Ex 22:26 f., De 24:12 f.; cf. Am 2:8; Job 22:6; 24:9; Eze 18:7,12,16; 33:15). It was forbidden also to take the mill or the upper millstone as a pledge (De 24:6). In Isa 36:8 the reference is to a pledge to be forfeited if a wager is lost (cf. Revised Version margin). In I S17:18 'take their pledge' probably means 'bring back a token of their welfare' (Driver).

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The taking of articles as security for loans, etc. was very early practised, and restrictions were given in the law that no unfair advantage should be taken thereby. Ex 22:26; De 24:10-17; Job 22:6; 24:3,9; Am 2:8. In 2Ki 18:23 and Isa 36:8 the sense is 'to make an engagement or treaty.'

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King James Version Public Domain