Reference: Ammon, Ammonites
A people inhabiting the territory between the tribe of Gad and the Arabian desert, from the Israelitish conquest of Palestine to the 4th cent. b.c., and perhaps till the 1st cent. a.d.
In Ge 19:38 the Ammonites are said to have descended from a certain Ben-Ammi, but in the Assyrian inscriptions Shalmaneser II., Tiglath-pileser III., and Sennacherib call them Beth-Ammon, placing the determinative for 'man' before Ammon. Except in Ps 83:7, which is late, the people are never called 'Ammon' in the Hebrew OT, but the 'children of Ammon,' or 'Ammonites.'
The really important feature of the story of Ge 19 is that it reveals a consciousness that the Israelites regarded the Ammonites as their kindred. The proper names of individual Ammonites, so far as they are known to us, confirm this view. Probably, therefore, the Ammonites formed a part of that wave of Aram
And the younger she also bare a son, and called his name Ben-ammi, - the same, is the father of the sons of Ammon - unto this day.
And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, - and took possession of his land, from Arnon unto Jabbok, unto the sons of Ammon, for strong, was the boundary of the sons of Ammon.
A land of giants, used, that also, to be accounted, - giants, dwelt therein aforetime, but the Ammonites, called them Zamzummim:
Only unto the land of the sons of Ammon, didst thou not come near, - all the side of the Jabbok ravine, nor the cities of the hill country, nor any which Yahweh our God had forbidden to us.
Neither an Ammonite nor a Moabite shall enter into the convocation of Yahweh, - even to the tenth generation, shall none that belong to them enter into the convocation of Yahweh, unto times age-abiding:
and Chephar-ammoni and Ophni, and Geba, - twelve cities, with their villages:
and he gathered unto him, the sons of Ammon, and Amalek, - and came and smote Israel, and took possession of the city of palm-trees.
And so it came to pass, after a time, - that the sons of Ammon made war with Israel. When, therefore, it came to pass that the sons of Ammon made war with Israel, then went the elders of Gilead, to summon Jephthah out of the land of Tob. read more. And they said to Jephthah, Oh! come and be our commander, - that we may do battle with the sons of Ammon. But Jephthah said to the elders of Gilead, Have not, ye, hated me, and thrust me out from the house of my father? Wherefore then, are ye come unto me, now, when ye are in distress? And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah - Therefore, have we, now, returned unto thee, that, if thou go with us, and do battle with the sons of Ammon, then shalt thou become our head, for all the inhabitants of Gilead. And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead - If ye do bring me back to do battle with the sons of Ammon, and Yahweh deliver them up before me, shall, I myself, become your head?
So then Jephthah sent messengers unto the king of the sons of Ammon, saying, - What occasion is there between us, that thou shouldst have come unto me, to fight against my land? And the king of the sons of Ammon said unto the messengers of Jephthah - Because Israel took away my land, when they came up out of Egypt, from Arnon even unto the Jabbok, and unto the Jordan, - now, therefore, restore them in peace. read more. And Jephthah yet once more sent messengers unto the king of the sons of Ammon; and said a unto him, Thus, saith Jephthah, - Israel took not away the land of Moab, or the land of the sons of Ammon; for, when they came up out of Egypt, and Israel journeyed through the desert as far as the Red Sea, and came in unto Kadesh, then did Israel send messengers unto the king of Edom, saying - Let me pass, I pray thee, through thy land, but the king of Edom hearkened not, unto the king of Moab also, sent they, but he would not consent, - so Israel abode in Kadesh. Then journeyed they through the desert, and went round the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and so came, from the rising of the sun, to the land of Moab, but encamped beyond Arnon, - and entered not within the boundary of Moab, for, Arnon, is the boundary of Moab. Then did Israel send messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, king of Heshbon, - and Israel said unto him, Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy land as far as my own place. But Sihon trusted not Israel, to pass through his boundary, so Sihon gathered together all his people, and encamped in Jahaz, - and fought against Israel. Then did Yahweh, God of Israel, deliver up Sihon, and all his people, into the hand of Israel, and they smote them, - so Israel took possession of all the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants of that land. Yea they took possession of all the territory of the Amorites, - from Arnon, even as far as the Jabbok, and from the desert, even as far as the Jordan. Now, therefore, it was, Yahweh God of Israel, that dispossessed the Amorites from before his people Israel, - and shalt, thou, possess it? What Chemosh thy god giveth thee to possess, that, wilt thou not possess? and, whatsoever Yahweh our God hath set before us to possess, that, shall we not possess? Now, therefore, art thou, really better, than Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab? Hath there been any, striving at all, with Israel, or any, fighting at all, with them, all the time that Israel hath been dwelling in Heshbon and in her towns, and in Aroer and in her towns, and in all the cities that are on the banks of Arnon, - for three hundred years? Wherefore, then, have ye not made a rescue within that time? I, therefore, have not sinned against thee; but, thou, art doing me a wrong, in fighting against me, - Let Yahweh, the Judge, give judgment today, between the sons of Israel, and the sons of Ammon! But the king of the sons of Ammon hearkened not unto the words of Jephthah, which he sent unto him. Then came upon Jephthah the spirit of Yahweh, and he passed through Gilead and Manasseh, - and passed through Mizpeh of Gilead, and, from Mizpeh of Gilead, he passed through unto the sons of Ammon. And Jephthah vowed a vow unto Yahweh, and said, - If thou wilt, deliver, the sons of Ammon into my hand, then shall it be, that, whosoever cometh forth out of the doors of my house, to meet me, when I return successful, from the sons of Ammon, shall belong unto Yahweh, and I will offer him up, as an ascending-sacrifice. So then Jephthah passed over unto the sons of Ammon, to fight against them, - and Yahweh delivered them into his hand; and he smote them, from Aroer even till thou enterest in to Minnith, even twenty cities, and as far as Abel-keramim, with an exceeding great smiting, - and thus were the sons of Ammon subdued before the sons of Israel. Then came Jephthah towards Mizpah, unto his own house, and lo! his daughter, coming forth to meet him, with timbrels, and with dances, - and, she, was none other than his only child, he had not, besides her, either son or daughter. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said - Alas! my daughter, Thou hast, brought me low, Even, thou, hast come to be among them who trouble me, - Yet, I, opened wide my mouth unto Yahweh, and cannot go back. And she said unto him - My father! Thou hast opened wide thy mouth unto Yahweh, Do with me, according to that which hath gone forth out of thy mouth, - after that Yahweh hath exacted for thee an avenging from thine enemies, from the sons of Ammon.
And the men of Ephraim were called together, and passed over northward, - and said unto Jephthah - Wherefore didst thou pass over to do battle with the sons of Ammon, and, for us, didst not call, to go with thee? Thy house, will we consume over thee with fire. And Jephthah said unto them, Great strife, had, I and my people, even with the sons of Ammon; but, when I cried unto you for help, ye saved me not out of their hand. read more. So, when I saw that thou wast not going to save, then put I my life in my hand, and passed over against the sons of Ammon, and Yahweh delivered them into my hand. Wherefore, then, have ye come up against me this day, to fight against me?
And it came to pass, when David entered Mahanaim, that Shobi son of Nahash of Rabbah of the sons of Ammon and Machir son of Ammiel of Lo-debar, and Barzillai the Gileadite, of Rogelim,
Zelek, the Ammonite, - Naharai, the Beerothite, armour bearers to Joab son of Zeruiah;
But, King Solomon, loved many foreign women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, - women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, Hittites:
And, Rehoboam, son of Solomon, reigned in Judah, - forty-one years old, was Rehoboam when he began to reign, and seventeen years, reigned he in Jerusalem, the city which Yahweh had chosen to put his Name there, out of all the tribes of Israel, and, his mother's name, was Naamah, the Ammonitess.
So then Rehoboam slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David, and, the name of his mother, was Naamah the Ammonitess, - and, Abijah his son, reigned, in his stead.
And Yahweh sent against him troops of Chaldeans, and troops of Syrians, and troops of Moabites, and troops of the sons of Ammon, yea he sent them against Judah, to destroy him, - according to the word of Yahweh, which he spake through his servants the prophets.
And it came to pass, after this, that the sons of Moab and the sons of Ammon, and, with them, some of the Meunim, came against Jehoshaphat, to battle.
And the Ammonites gave a present to Uzziah, - and his name went forth as far as the entering in of Egypt, for he shewed exceeding great strength.
He, also made war against the king of the sons of Ammon, and prevailed against them, and the sons of Ammon gave him, during that year, a hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of wheat, and, of barley, ten thousand, - this, did the sons of Ammon render him, both in the second year, and the third.
And, when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant the Ammonite, heard of it, it vexed them, with a great vexation, - that there had come a man, to seek welfare, for the sons of Israel.
But, when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed at us, and poured contempt upon us, - and said, What is this thing which ye would do? against the king, would ye rebel?
Now, Tobiah the Ammonite, was beside him, - so he said, Even that which they are building, if a fox should go up, he would break down their stone wall!
But it came to pass, when Sanballat and Tobiah and the Arabians and the Ammonites and the Ashdodites heard that the repair of the walls of Jerusalem had gone up, that the breaches began to be stopped, that it angered them exceedingly;
Moreover, in these days, saw I the Jews who had married women of Ashdod, of Ammon, of Moab;
Gebal and Ammon, and Amalek, The Philistines, with the dwellers in Tyre;
Gebal and Ammon, and Amalek, The Philistines, with the dwellers in Tyre;
Then shalt thou send them unto the king of Edom and unto the king of Moab and unto the king of the sons of Ammon, and unto the king of Tyre and unto the king of Zidon, - by the hand of messengers coming into Jerusalem, unto Zedekiah king of Judah.
Likewise also, all the Jews, who were in Moab and among the sons of Ammon and in Edom and who were in any of the lands, when they heard that the king of Babylon had granted a remnant to Judah, and that he had set in charge over them Gedaliah son of Ahikam son of Shaphan,
and said unto him - Dost thou at all know, that, Baalis, king of the sons of Ammon, hath sent Ishmael son of Nethaniah, to smite thee to death? But Gedaliah son of Ahikam, believed them not.
Of the sons of Ammon-Thus saith Yahweh: Hath Israel no, sons? Hath he no, heir? Why hath, Malkam, taken possession of Gad, Or have, his people, in the cities thereof, made their dwelling?
A way, shalt thou appoint, for the sword to enter. Even to Rabbah of the sons of Ammon, - And to Judah against Jerusalem, the defenced,
Thus, saith Yahweh, Because of three transgressions of the sons of Ammon, and because of four, will I not turn it back, - Because of their ripping up the pregnant women of Gilead, that they might enlarge their own boundary, Therefore will I kindle a fire upon the wall of Rabbah, which shall devour the palaces thereof, - with a war-cry in the day of battle, with tempest in the day of storm-wind; read more. And Milcom shall go into exile, - he and his rulers together, saith Yahweh.
I have heard the reproach of Moab, and the revilings of the sons of Ammon, - who have reproached my people, and have magnified themselves up to their bounds. Wherefore, as I live, declareth Yahweh of hosts, God of Israel, Surely, Moab, like Sodom, shall become, and, the sons of Ammon, like Gomorrah, a possession for the thorn, and a pit of salt, Yea a desolation, unto times age-abiding: The remnant of my people, shall make of them a prey, and, the residue of my nation, shall inherit them.