1 Then I ask, "Did God reject His [own] people [i.e., the Jews]?" Certainly not! For I am an Israelite too, a descendant of Abraham and a member of the tribe of Benjamin.
1 I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
1 So I ask, "God has not rejected his people, has he?" Of course not! I am an Israeli myself, a descendant of Abraham from the tribe of Benjamin.
2 God did not reject His people whom He knew previously. Or, do you not know what the Scriptures say in the passage where Elijah pleads with God against Israel?
2 God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew. Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,
2 God has not rejected his people whom he chose long ago. Do you not know what the Scripture says in the story about Elijah, when he pleads with God against Israel?
3 [I Kings 19:10], "Lord, they [i.e., the Israelites] have killed your prophets and have destroyed your altars; I am the only one left and they are trying to kill me, too."
3 Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life.
3 "Lord, they have killed your prophets and demolished your altars. I am the only one left, and they are trying to take my life."
4 But how did God answer him? [I Kings 19:18 says], "I [i.e., God] have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed their knee [in worship] to Baal [Note: "Baal" was a term used for one of the idols worshiped in Elijah's day by Canaanites and others in Palestine].
4 But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal.
4 But what was the divine reply to him? "I have reserved for myself 7,000 people who have not knelt to worship Baal."
5 So, now also, there is a small minority which has been selected by God's unearned favor [i.e., to be saved].
5 Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
5 So it is at the present time: there is a remnant, chosen by grace.
6 And if [they were selected] by God's unearned favor, [then] the choice is not based on the good that people may do. Otherwise, God's favor would not be [really] unearned.
6 And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.
6 But if this is by grace, then it is no longer on the basis of actions. Otherwise, grace would no longer be grace.
7 What then? [Just this]: The very thing that the Israelites are looking for [i.e., a right relationship with God], they have not found. But God's selected ones obtained [this right relationship with Him] and the rest [of the Israelites] were made insensitive to God's call,
7 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded
7 What, then, does this mean? It means that Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking, but the selected group obtained it while the rest were hardened.
8 as it has been written [Isa. 19:10], "God gave them a spirit of numbness [i.e., they developed a spiritual insensitivity to God and His word]. [He gave them] eyes to see with [but they would not look], and ears to hear with [but they did not listen]. And they still have this spirit."
8 (According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.
8 As it is written, "To this day God has put them into deep sleep. Their eyes do not see, and their ears do not hear."
9 And King David said [Psa. 69:22-23], "Let their table ensnare and trap them [i.e., let the Jews' devotion to such things as lavish feasts become the occasion for leading them astray], and become an occasion for their falling [away from God]. And let them be repaid [for such conduct with punishment].
9 And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them:
9 And David says, "Let their table become a snare and a trap, a stumbling block and a punishment for them.
10 Let their eyes become [spiritually] dim so they cannot see, and may their backs always bend [i.e., under heavy burdens]."
10 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.
10 Let their eyes be darkened so that they cannot see, and keep their backs forever bent."
11 I say then, did the Jews trip [over Jesus] just so they could fall [away from God]? Certainly not! [There was another reason]: Instead, it was by means of their sin that salvation was made available to the Gentiles, so that the Jews might become jealous of them [i.e., causing them to want what the Gentiles now had].
11 I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy.
11 And so I ask, "They have not stumbled so as to fall, have they?" Of course not! On the contrary, because of their stumbling, salvation has come to the gentiles to make the Jews jealous.
12 Now if the Jews sinning meant blessings for [the rest of] the world, and their [spiritual] defection meant blessings for the Gentiles, how much more will their fullness [also produce blessings]! [Note: "Fullness" here may mean either a large or the complete number of Jews who will be saved, or become completely obedient to God].
12 Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?
12 Now if their stumbling means riches for the world, and if their fall means riches for the gentiles, how much more will their full participation mean!
13 Now I am talking to you Gentiles, [and] since I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I will make the most of my ministry [to you],
13 For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office:
13 I am speaking to you gentiles. Because I am an apostle to the gentiles, I magnify my ministry
14 in hope that somehow I might stir up jealousy among my fellow-Jews, and thereby save some of them.
14 If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them.
14 in the hope that I can make my people jealous and save some of them.
15 For if their rejection [by God] meant that [the rest of] the world could be restored to favor [with God], what would [God's] receiving the Jews back into fellowship be, except like dead people coming back to life?
15 For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
15 For if their rejection results in reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance bring but life from the dead?
16 And if the first part of the dough is dedicated to God, the entire batch of dough will be also. And if the roots [of a tree] are dedicated to God, the branches will be also.
16 For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.
16 If the first part of the dough is holy, so is the whole batch. If the root is holy, so are the branches.
17 But some of the branches [of a cultivated olive tree] were broken off [i.e., God's rejection of the Jews] and you [Gentiles], representing a wild olive tree [branch], were grafted into it. So then, you [Gentiles] were able to benefit from the roots and sap of the olive tree, along with the Jews.
17 And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;
17 Now if some of the branches have been broken off, and you, a wild olive branch, have been grafted in their place to share the rich root of the olive tree,
18 Therefore, you should not brag [about your superiority] over the [natural] branches [i.e., the rejected Jews]. But, if you must brag, it should not be over you [Gentiles] nourishing the roots [i.e., the Jews], but over the roots nourishing you.
18 Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.
18 do not boast about being better than the other branches. If you boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you.
19 But you [Gentiles] will then say, "The branches were broken off so that we could be grafted in."
19 Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in.
19 Then you will say, "Branches were cut off so that I could be grafted in."
20 True, but they [i.e., the Jews] were [really] broken off because they did not believe [in Christ], and you [Gentiles] remain [in God's favor] because you do believe [in Him]. So, do not become arrogant [about it], but be fearful.
20 Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear:
20 That's right! They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you remain only because of faith. Do not be arrogant, but be afraid!
21 For if God did not spare the natural branches [i.e., the Jews], He will not spare you [Gentiles] either.
21 for if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you, either.
21 For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee.
21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you either.
21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, he certainly will not spare you, either.
22 So, look at God's kindness and severity. He was severe with those [Jews] who have fallen, but He is kind to you [Gentiles], if you continue to accept His kindness [i.e., by living for Him faithfully]. Otherwise, you too will be cut off [like the Jews were].
22 Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
22 Consider, then, the kindness and severity of God: his severity toward those who fell, but God's kindness toward you if you continue receiving his kindness. Otherwise, you too will be cut off.
23 And these Jews also will be grafted [back] in [to the olive tree] if they do not continue in their lack of faith [in Christ], because God is able to graft them back in again.
23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.
23 If the Jews do not persist in their unbelief, they will be grafted in again, because God is able to graft them in.
24 For you [Gentiles] were cut off from a natural wild olive tree and [then], contrary to the natural process, were grafted into a cultivated olive tree. [Since that has happened], how much more likely is it for these [Jews], who are the natural branches, to be grafted [back] into their own olive tree [again]?
24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree?
24 For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree?
24 For if you were cut off from your native wild olive and against nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these—the natural branches—be grafted into their own olive tree?
24 After all, if you were cut off from what is naturally a wild olive tree, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much easier it will be for these natural branches to be grafted back into their own olive tree!
25 For I want you to know this secret, brothers, so you will not become conceited: Part of the Israelites have become [spiritually] insensitive [to God], [and will remain that way] until the fullness of the Gentiles occurs. [Note: As with verse 12, concerning the Jews, "fullness" here may mean either a large or the complete number of Gentiles who will be saved].
25 For (AL)I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this (AM)mystery—so that you will not be (AN)wise in your own estimation—that a partial (AO)hardening has happened to Israel until the (AP)fullness of the Gentiles has come in;
25 For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
25 So that you will not be conceited,(AF) brothers, I do not want you to be unaware(AG) of this mystery:(AH) A partial hardening has come to Israel(AI) until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.(AJ)
25 For I want to let you know about this secret, brothers, so that you will not claim to be wiser than you are: Stubbornness has come to part of Israel until the full number of the gentiles comes to faith.
26 And so [i.e., in this way] all the Israelites will be saved. [Note: The "all" here is thought by many to refer to a large number of the physical Jews who will be saved, not necessarily to every single individual Jew]. Even as it is written [Isa. 59:20-21], "The Deliverer [i.e., Christ] will come from Zion [i.e., the city of Jerusalem, or from the nation of Israel]. He will take away the wickedness from Jacob [i.e., the Jews]."
26 And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
26 In this way, all Israel will be saved, as it is written, "The Deliverer will come from Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob.
27 [A summary of Jer. 31:31-34 says], "And I [i.e., God] will make this Agreement with them [i.e., Jewish and Gentile believers] when I take away their sins."
27 For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
27 This is my covenant with them when I take away their sins."
28 Now in response to the [proclamation of the] good news [about Christ], the Jews became [God's] enemies for the sake of you [Gentiles]. But concerning [God's] select people, these Jews became [God's] dearly loved ones for the sake of their forefathers [i.e, who believed God's promises regarding their descendants].
28 As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes.
28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies for your sake, but as far as election is concerned, they are loved for the sake of their ancestors.
29 For God does not change His mind about the gifts He gives and the people He calls [to Him].
29 For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.
29 For God's gifts and calling never change.
30 For you Gentiles were disobedient to God in the past, but now you have obtained [God's] mercy by means of the disobedience of the Jews.
30 For just as you once were disobedient to God, but now have been shown mercy because of their disobedience,
30 For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:
30 As you once disobeyed God, but now have received mercy through their disobedience,
30 For just as you disobeyed God in the past but now have received his mercy because of their disobedience,
31 So, now these [same] Jews have also been disobedient [to God], so that they may also now obtain [God's] mercy by means of the mercy [He has] shown to you [Gentiles].
31 so these also now have been disobedient, that because of the mercy shown to you they also may now be shown mercy.
31 Even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy.
31 so they, too, have now disobeyed. As a result, they may receive mercy because of the mercy shown to you.
32 For God has made all people prisoners of a disobedient life, so that He could show mercy to everyone.
32 For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.
32 For God has locked all people in the prison of their own disobedience so that he may have mercy on them all.
33 O, how deep is the richness of God's wisdom and knowledge! How difficult [it is for us] to explain His judgments and how impossible [for us] to accurately track how He operates!
33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!
33 O how deep are God's riches, and wisdom, and knowledge! How unfathomable are his decisions and unexplainable are his ways!
34 [Note: The following are rhetorical questions raised from their reading of the Old Testament]. For who has known [what goes on in] the Lord's mind? Or, who has been His advisor?
34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counseller?
34 Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has become his advisor?
35 Or, who has given [something] to God that He has to pay back?
35 Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?
35 Or who has given him something only to have him pay it back?"
36 For everything was created by Him, exists through His [power] and is intended for His [glory]. May He be praised forever. May it be so.
36 For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.
36 For all things are from him, by him, and for him. Glory belongs to him forever! Amen.
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