(2.) 1Ch 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2Ki 17:1-2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, B.C. 720 (2Ki 17:5-6; 18:9-12). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" (Ho 10:7; 13:11).
1. See Jos 2. An Ephraimite (1Ch 27:20). 3. One of those who sealed the covenant (Ne 10:23). 4. The last king of Israel. The chronological data of our text are not entirely accordant (2Ki 15:30; 17:1), but we know that he came to the throne not far from b.c. 732. Taking into view the Assyrian annals along with the Biblical accounts, we gather that there were two parties in Samaria, one advocating submission to Assyria, the other hoping for independence. Pekah was placed on the throne by the latter; Hoshea was the candidate of the Assyrians, and was perhaps actively supported by them in his revolt against Pekah, whom he supplanted. This was when Tiglath-pileser punished Pekah and Rezin for interfering in the affairs of Judah (see Ahaz). At the death of Tiglath-pileser, however, Hoshea was enticed by the Egyptian king or sub-king, and went over to the party which was ready for revolt. It is probable that he had convinced himself that the land could not longer pay the heavy tribute laid upon it. The new king of Assyria (Shalmaneser iv.) moved promptly, captured and imprisoned the king, and laid siege to the capital. It speaks well for the strength of Samaria and for the courage of its people that the place held out for more than two years; but the result can hardly have been doubtful from the first. The surrender was followed by the deportation of a considerable part of the people, and the planting of foreign colonies in the country (2Ki 17:6,24). Sargon, who came to the throne just before the surrender, had no desire to experiment with more vassal kings, and set an Assyrian governor over the wasted province. Thus ended the kingdom of Israel.
H. P. Smith.
1. The original name of JOSHUA the son of Nun. De 32:44.
2. Son of Azaziah and a chief of the tribe of Ephraim. 1Ch 27:20.
3. Son of Elah and the last king of Israel. He conspired against Pekah and slew him, and reigned in his stead, 'in the twentieth year of Jotham.' (But Jotham reigned only 16 years, and the above probably means that Pekah was slain in the twentieth year after Jotham became king.) There was then anarchy for about 9 years, thought to be noticed in Hosea 10; and Hoshea began to reign B.C. 730, the twelfth year of Ahaz, which agrees with 2Ki 17:1. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but was not so bad as the kings that had preceded him. He sought an alliance with the king of Egypt against the king of Assyria, who imprisoned him in bonds. Three years later Samaria was attacked, and after three years it was taken, and the people carried away; but the fate of Hoshea is not revealed. 2Ki 15:30; 17:1-6; 18:1,9-10.
4. A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Ne 10:23.
1. The nineteenth, last and best king of Israel. He succeeded Pekah, whom he slew in a successful conspiracy, thereby fulfilling a prophecy of Isaiah.
In the third year of his reign (B.C. 726) Shalmaneser cruelly stormed the strong caves of Beth-arbel,
and made cruel tributary,
for three years. At the end of this period Hoshea entered into a secret alliance with So, king, of Egypt, to throw off the Assyrian yoke. The alliance did him no good; it was revealed, to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vasal, shut up in prison, and apparently treated with the utmost indignity.
Of the subsequent fortunes of Hoshea nothing is known.
2. The son of Nun, i.e. Joshua,
and also in Numb 13:8 though to there the Authorized Version has OSHEA.
3. Shon of Azaziah,
like his great namesake, a man of Ephraim, ruler of his tribe in the time of King David. (B.C. 1019.)
4. One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.