The second and greatest of the kings of Israel; the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; he belonged to the tribe of Judah. The details of his life are gathered from 1Sa 16:3
And I will set thy borders from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines and from the desert unto the river; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and thou shalt drive them out before thee. Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. read more. They shall not dwell in thy land lest peradventure they make thee sin against me by serving their gods, for it will be a snare unto thee.
then the LORD will drive out all these Gentiles from before you, and ye shall possess nations greater and mightier than yourselves. Every place upon which the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours, from the wilderness and Lebanon; from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the western sea shall be your border. read more. No one shall be able to stand before you; for the LORD your God shall lay the fear of you and the dread of you upon all the land that ye shall tread upon, as he has said unto you.
Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace, and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him. And she said, Let thy handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and ate, and her countenance was no longer sad. read more. And they rose up in the morning early and worshipped before the LORD and returned and came to their house to Ramah. And Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her. Therefore, it came to pass when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, she bore a son and called his name Samuel, , saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD. And the man Elkanah and all his house went up to offer unto the LORD the accustomed sacrifice and his vow. But Hannah did not go up, for she said unto her husband, I will not go up until the child is weaned, and then I will bring him that he may be presented before the LORD and abide there for ever. And Elkanah, her husband, said unto her, Do what seems good unto thee; tarry until thou hast weaned him; only let the LORD establish his word. So the woman abode and gave her son suck until she weaned him. And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks and one ephah of flour and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the house of the LORD in Shiloh; and the child was young. And they slew a bullock and brought the child to Eli. And she said, Oh my lord, as thy soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD. For this child I prayed, and the LORD has given me my petition which I asked of him.
And he had a son, whose name was Saul, a handsome young man. Among the sons of Israel there was not a nicer person than he; from his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people.
And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? Fill thy horn with oil and go; I will send thee to Jesse of Bethlehem for I have provided me a king among his sons. And Samuel said, How can I go? If Saul understands it, he will kill me. And the LORD said, Take a heifer with thee and say, I am come to sacrifice to the LORD. read more. And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show thee what thou shalt do, and thou shalt anoint unto me the one whom I name unto thee.
And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show thee what thou shalt do, and thou shalt anoint unto me the one whom I name unto thee. And Samuel did as the LORD said and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming and said, Comest thou peaceably? read more. And he said, Peaceably; I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD; sanctify yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons and called them to the sacrifice. And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab and said, Peradventure is the LORD's anointed before him? And the LORD replied unto Samuel, Do not look on his countenance or on the height of his stature because I have refused him, for it is not as man sees, for man looks on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks on the heart. Then Jesse called Abinadab and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, Neither has the LORD chosen this one. Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, Neither has the LORD chosen this one. Again, Jesse made his seven sons pass before Samuel, but Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD has not chosen these. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are all thy young men here? And he said, There remains yet the youngest, and, behold, he keeps the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send for him, for we will not sit down to the table until he comes here. And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and of a beautiful countenance and handsome. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him, for this is he. Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him from among his brethren; and the Spirit of the LORD prospered David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up and went to Ramah. But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him. And Saul's slaves said unto him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God troubles thee. Let our lord now command thy slaves, which are before thee, to seek out a man who is a cunning player on a harp, and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play with his hand and thou shalt have relief. And Saul said unto his slaves, Provide me now a man that can play well and bring him to me. Then one of the servants answered and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse of Bethlehem, that is cunning in playing and a mighty valiant man and a man of war and prudent in speech and handsome, and the LORD is with him. Therefore Saul sent messengers unto Jesse and said, Send me David, thy son, who is with the sheep. And Jesse took an ass laden with bread and a bottle of wine and a kid and sent them by David, his son, unto Saul. And David came to Saul and stood before him; and he loved him greatly, and he became his armourbearer. And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me, for he has found favour in my sight. And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took a harp and played with his hand; so Saul was refreshed and was better, and the evil spirit departed from him.
And David was the son of an Ephrathite man of Bethlehem of Judah, whose name was Jesse, and he had eight sons, and this man was old in the days of Saul and of advanced age among men. And the three eldest sons of Jesse had gone and followed Saul to the battle. And the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab, the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab and the third Shammah. read more. And David was the youngest, the three eldest having gone after Saul. But David had gone and returned from being with Saul to feed his father's sheep in Bethlehem. And the Philistine drew near morning and evening and presented himself for forty days. And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched grain and these ten loaves and run to the camp to thy brethren and carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand and look how thy brethren fare and take their pledge. Now Saul and they and all the men of Israel were in the valley of Elah, fighting against the Philistines. And David rose up early in the morning and left the sheep with a keeper and took and went with his burden as Jesse had commanded him, and he came to the trench as the host was going forth in battle array, and they had already sounded the alarm for the battle. For Israel and the Philistines had ordered the battle, army against army. And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage and ran into the army and came and asked about his brethren, if they were well. And as he talked with them, behold, there came up that man, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, speaking the same words, and David heard them. And all the men of Israel when they saw the man fled from him and feared greatly. And each one of the men of Israel were saying, Have ye seen this man that is come up? He is come up to dishonour Israel. It shall be that the king will enrich the man who overcomes him with great riches and will give him his daughter and make his father's house free in Israel. Then David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that overcomes this Philistine and takes away the reproach from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should dishonour the armies of the living God? And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that overcomes him. And Eliab, his eldest brother, heard when he spoke unto the men, and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why didst thou come down here? And with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride and the malice of thy heart, for thou art come down that thou might see the battle. And David said, What have I now done? Is there not a cause? And he turned from him toward another and spoke after the same manner, and the people answered him again after the former manner. And the words which David had spoken were heard, and they were rehearsed before Saul, and he sent for him.
And David replied unto Saul, Thy slave was the pastor of his father's sheep, and if a lion or a bear came and took a lamb out of the flock, I went out after him and smote him and delivered it out of his mouth; and if he arose against me, I caught him by his beard and smote him and slew him.
And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said, As thy soul lives, O king, I cannot tell. And the king said, Enquire whose son the young man is. read more. And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand. And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy slave Jesse of Bethlehem.
And it came to pass on the next day that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house, and David played with his hand as at other times, and there was a spear in Saul's hand. And Saul cast the spear, saying, I will smite David to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice.
And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The desire of the king is not in any dowry, but one hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. For Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines. And when his slaves told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son-in-law, and the days were not expired.
And Saul spoke to Jonathan, his son, and to all his slaves that they should kill David. But Jonathan, Saul's son, delighted much in David, and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul, my father, seeks to kill thee: now, therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning and abide in a secret place and hide thyself. read more. And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will speak with my father of thee, and what I see, that I will tell thee. And Jonathan spoke good of David unto Saul, his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his slave David, for he has not sinned against thee; on the other hand his works have been very good for thee, for he put his soul in his hand and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel. Thou didst see it and rejoice. Why then wilt thou sin against innocent blood to slay David without a cause? And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan, and Saul swore, As the LORD lives, he shall not be slain. And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence as in times past.
Then those of Ziph came to Saul to Gibeah, saying, Does not David hide himself with us in strong holds in the woods in the hill of Hachilah, which is on the right hand side of the wilderness?
And it came to pass when Saul was returned from following the Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of Engedi.
And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, saying, Does David not hide himself in the hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon?
David, therefore, sent out spies and understood that Saul was indeed come.
And, behold, as thy life has been esteemed today in my eyes, so let my life be esteemed in the eyes of the LORD and let him deliver me out of all affliction. Then Saul said to David, Blessed art thou, my son David; without a doubt thou shalt do great things and prevail. So David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place.
And the number of days that David dwelt in the country of the Philistines was four months and some days.
And David replied unto Achish, But what have I done? And what hast thou found in thy slave so long as I have been with thee unto this day that I may not go fight against the enemies of my lord the king?
And when David came to Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the elders of Judah, his friends, saying, Behold a blessing for you of the spoil of the enemies of the LORD: to those who were in Bethel and to those who were in Ramoth towards the Negev and to those who were in Jattir read more. and to those who were in Aroer and to those who were in Siphmoth and to those who were in Eshtemoa and to those who were in Rachal and to those who were in the cities of the Jerahmeelites and to those who were in the cities of the Kenites and to those who were in Hormah and to those who were in Chorashan and to those who were in Athach and to those who were in Hebron and in all the places where David had been with his men.
How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! O Jonathan, thou wast slain in thine high places. I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan; very pleasant hast thou been unto me; thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women. read more. How are the valiant fallen, and the weapons of war perished!
And the men of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah. And they told David, saying, The men of Jabeshgilead buried Saul.
Now there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David, but David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker.
Nevertheless, David took the fortress of Zion; the same is the city of David.
And Hiram, king of Tyre, also sent messengers to David, and cedar trees and carpenters and masons, and they built David a house.
But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David, and David heard of it and went down to the fortress. The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim. read more. Then David enquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up to the Philistines? Wilt thou deliver them into my hand? And the LORD said unto David, Go up, for I without a doubt will deliver the Philistines into thy hand. And David came to Baalperazim, and David smote them there and said, The LORD has broken forth upon my enemies before me as the breach of waters. Therefore, he called the name of that place Baalperazim. And they left their images there, and David and his men burned them. And the Philistines came up yet again and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim. And when David enquired of the LORD, he said, Thou shalt not go up, but go around behind them and come upon them over against the mulberry trees, and when thou hearest thunder going through the tops of the mulberry trees, then thou shalt move, for then the LORD shall go out before thee to smite the host of the Philistines. And David did so as the LORD had commanded him and smote the Philistines from Geba unto Gazer.
Again, David gathered together all the chosen of Israel, thirty thousand.
that the king said unto Nathan, the prophet, See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwells within curtains.
since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel. And I will cause thee to rest from all thy enemies. Likewise, the LORD makes thee to know that he will make thee a house.
Then King David went in and sat before the LORD, and he said, O Lord GOD, Who am I and what is my house that thou hast brought me thus far? And this was yet a small thing in thy sight, O Lord GOD; but thou hast spoken also of thy slave's house for a great while to come and that this shall be the condition of a man, O Lord GOD. read more. And what more can David say unto thee? For thou, Lord GOD, knowest thy slave. For thou hast done all these great things by thy word and according to thine own heart to make thy slave know them. Therefore, thou art great, O LORD God, for there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears. And who in the earth is like thy people, like Israel? A Gentile for the love of whom God went to ransom as a people to himself and to give him a name and to do with you great and terrible things in thy land because of thy people whom thou didst redeem unto thee from Egypt, from the Gentiles and their gods? For thou hast confirmed to thyself thy people Israel to be thy people for ever, and thou, LORD, have become their God. And now, O LORD God, the word that thou hast spoken concerning thy slave and concerning his house, raise it up for ever and do as thou hast said. For thus shall thy name be magnified for ever that it may be said, The LORD of the hosts is God over Israel and that the house of thy slave David be established before thee. For thou, O LORD of the hosts, God of Israel, hast revealed to thy slave, saying, I will build thee a house. Therefore, thy slave has found it in his heart to pray this prayer in thy presence. And now, O Lord GOD, thou art God, and thy words shall be firm, and thou hast spoken this goodness unto thy slave. Therefore, now let it please thee to bless the house of thy slave that it may continue for ever before thee, for thou, O Lord GOD, hast spoken it, and with thy blessing the house of thy slave shall be blessed for ever.
He also smote those of Moab and measured them with a line, causing them to lie down on the ground, and he measured them with two lines, with one to put to death and the other full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's slaves, bringing presents. David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to extend his border to the river Euphrates. read more. And David took from him a thousand seven hundred horsemen and twenty thousand footmen, and David hamstrung all the chariot horses but reserved of them for one hundred chariots. And when the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David slew of the Syrians twenty-two thousand men. Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus, and the Syrians became slaves to David, bringing presents. And the LORD saved David wherever he went. And David took the shields of gold that were on the slaves of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem. Likewise from Betah and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, King David took a great quantity of brass. When Toi, king of Hamath, heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer, then Toi sent Joram, his son, unto King David, to greet him peacefully and to bless him because he had fought against Hadadezer and smitten him, for Hadadezer had wars with Toi. And Joram brought vessels of silver and vessels of gold and vessels of brass in his hand, which King David dedicated unto the LORD with the silver and gold that he had dedicated of all Gentiles which he subdued of the Syrians and of the Moabites and of the sons of Ammon and of the Philistines and of Amalekites and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah. And David received fame when he returned from smiting of the Syrians in the valley of salt eighteen thousand men. And he put garrisons in Edom; he put garrisons throughout all Edom, and all those of Edom became David's slaves. And the LORD saved David wherever he went.
And it came to pass after this that the king of the sons of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead.
And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab and his slaves with him and all Israel, and they destroyed the sons of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from off his bed and walked upon the roof of the king's house, and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself, and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.
And he sent by the hand of Nathan, the prophet; and he called his name Jedidiah, , by the LORD. And Joab fought against Rabbah, of the sons of Ammon, and took the royal city. read more. Then Joab sent messengers to David and said, I have fought against Rabbah and have taken the city of waters. Now, therefore, gather the rest of the people together and encamp against the city and take it lest I take the city, and it be called after my name. And David gathered all the people together and went to Rabbah and fought against it and took it. And he took their king's crown from off his head, the weight of which was a talent of gold with the precious stones, and it was set on David's head. And he brought forth the spoil of the city in great abundance. And he brought forth the people that were therein and put them under saws and under harrows of iron and under axes of iron and made them pass through the brickkiln, and thus did he unto all the cities of the sons of Ammon. So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem.
And it came to pass after this that Absalom prepared himself chariots and horses and fifty men to run before him. And Absalom rose up early and stood beside the way of the gate; and when anyone that had a controversy came to the king for judgment, then Absalom called unto them and said, Of what city art thou? And he said, Thy slave is of one of the tribes of Israel. read more. And Absalom would say unto them, See, thy matters are good and just; but there is no one delegated by the king to hear thee. And Absalom would say, Oh, that I were made judge in the land, that everyone who has any suit or cause might come unto me, and I would do him justice! And it was so, that when anyone came near unto him to do him obeisance, he put forth his hand and took him and kissed him. And Absalom did according to this manner with all Israel that came to the king for judgment; so Absalom stole the hearts of those of Israel.
And when Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed, he saddled his ass and arose, and went home to his house, to his city, and put his household in order and hanged himself and died and was buried in the sepulchre of his father.
But, said he, let me run, be what may. And he said unto him, Run. Then Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain and overran Cushi. And David sat between the two gates, and the watchman went up to the roof over the gate unto the wall and lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold a man running alone. read more. And the watchman cried and told the king. And the king said, If he is alone, he brings good news. And while he kept on drawing near, the watchman saw another man running, and the watchman called unto the porter and said, Behold another man running alone. And the king said, He also bringeth tidings. And the watchman said, I think the running of the foremost is like the running of Ahimaaz, the son of Zadok. And the king said, He is a good man and comes with good tidings. And Ahimaaz called and said unto the king peace. And he fell down to the earth upon his face before the king, and said, Blessed be the LORD thy God, who has delivered up those men that lifted up their hand against my lord the king. And the king said, Is the young man Absalom at peace? And Ahimaaz answered, When Joab sent the king's slave, and me thy slave, I saw a great tumult, but I did not know what it was. And the king said unto him, Turn aside and stand here. And he turned aside and stood still. And, behold, Cushi came; and Cushi said, Tidings, my lord the king, for the LORD has vindicated thee today of all those that rose up against thee. And the king said unto Cushi, Is the young man Absalom at peace? And Cushi answered, Let the enemies of my lord the king and all that rise against thee for evil, be as that young man. Then the king was much moved and went up to the chamber over the gate and wept; and as he went, he said this: O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! I would rather have died instead of thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!
And the Philistines made war again with Israel; and David went down, and his slaves with him, and fought against the Philistines; and David became weary. And Ishbibenob, who was of the sons of the giant, and the weight of whose spear was three hundred shekels of brass in weight, was girded with a new sword and had determined to kill David. read more. But Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, helped David, and smote the Philistine and killed him. Then the men of David swore unto him, saying, From now on thou shalt not go out with us to battle that thou not quench the light of Israel. And after this, there was a second war with the Philistines at Gob; then Sibbechai, the Hushathite, slew Saph, who was of the sons of the giant. And there was another war in Gob with the Philistines where Elhanan, the son of Jaareoregim of Bethlehem, slew Goliath, the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam. And after that there was another war in Gath where there was a man of great stature, that had six fingers on every hand, and six toes on every foot, twenty-four in number; and he also was of the sons of the giant. And when he dishonoured Israel, Jonathan, the son of Shimea, the brother of David, slew him. These four were born to the giant in Gath and fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his slaves.
The days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; he reigned seven years in Hebron, and he reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem.
and Jehu, the son of Nimshi, thou shalt anoint to be king over Israel; and Elisha, the son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah, thou shalt anoint to be prophet in thy place.
with all his reign and his might, and the times that went over him and over Israel and over all the kingdoms of the lands.