Was early known and wrought, Ge 4:22. Moses often alludes to it. He compares the bondage in Egypt to a furnace for smelting iron, and speaks of the iron ore of Canaan, De 3:11; 4:20; 8:9. Many different articles and tools were anciently made of it. Immense quantities were provided for the building of the temple, 1Ch 29:2,7. "Iron" is used to illustrated slavery, strength, obstinacy, fortitude, affliction, etc., De 28:48; Job 40:18; Isa 48:4; Jer 1:18; Eze 22:18,20; Da 2:33. "Iron sharpeneth iron," that is, the presence of a friend gives us more confidence and assurance. God threatens his ungrateful and perfidious people that he will make the heaven brass and the earth iron; that is, make the earth barren, and the heaven to produce no rain. Chariots of iron are chariots armed with iron spikes and scythes. See CHARIOTS.
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Ge 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1Ch 22:3; 29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Eze 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (De 27:5; 19:5; Jos 17:16,18; 1Sa 17:7; 2Sa 12:31; 2Ki 6:5-6; 1Ch 22:3; Isa 10:34).
Figuratively, a yoke of iron (De 28:48) denotes hard service; a rod of iron (Ps 2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jer 1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (De 4:20), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of iron (Ps 107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isa 60:17), prosperity.
1. A city of Naphtali, in the mountains, Jos 19:38. It is probably the modern Y
City of Naphtali. Jos 19:38. Identified with Yarun, 33 5' N, 35 25' E.
This metal is mentioned as early as Ge 4:22, when it was used by artificers; and Job speaks of it as dug out of the earth. Job 28:2. It was in use in Palestine before the Israelites entered, for they found that the Canaanites had chariots of iron. Jos 17:16,18. Og king of Bashan had a bedstead of iron, and iron was used for spear heads, threshing instruments, and other such purposes. Iron is used as a symbol of hardness. Israel is described as obstinate; their neck was like an iron sinew and their brow as brass. Isa 48:4. The Lord Jesus will rule the nations with a rod of iron. Re 12:5; 19:15. Iron also characterised the kingdom of Rome. When represented as a beast, it had great iron teeth. Da 7:7,19; and in the great image the character of the various kingdoms had depreciated from gold to silver, then to brass, thence to iron and clay, that would not unite, the traces of which are seen around us in the national governments of the present day. Da 2:33-45.
(pious), one of the cities of Naphtali,
hitherto totally unknown.
IRON, ????; occurs first in Ge 4:22, and afterward frequently; and the Chaldee ????, in Da 2:33,41, and elsewhere often in that book; ???????, Re 18:12, and the adjectives, Ac 12:10; Re 2:27; 9:9; 12:5; 19:15; a well known and very serviceable metal. The knowledge of working it was very ancient, as appears from Ge 4:22. We do not, however, find that Moses made use of iron in the fabric of the tabernacle in the wilderness, or Solomon in any part of the temple at Jerusalem. Yet, from the manner in which the Jewish legislator speaks of iron, the metal, it appears, must have been in use in Egypt before his time. He celebrates the great hardness of it, Le 26:19; De 28:23,48; takes notice that the bedstead of Og, king of Bashan, was of iron, De 3:11; he speaks of mines of iron, De 8:9; and he compares the severity of the servitude of the Israelites in Egypt to the heat of a furnace for melting iron, De 4:20. We find, also, that swords, Nu 35:16, axes, De 19:5, and tools for cutting stones, De 27:5, were made of iron. By the "northern iron," Jer 15:12, we may probably understand the hardened iron, called in Greek ?????, from the Chalybes, a people bordering on the Euxine sea, and consequently lying on the north of Judea, by whom the art of tempering steel is said to have been discovered. Strabo speaks of this people by the name of Chalybes, but afterward Chaldaei; and mentions their iron mines. These, however, were a different people from the Chaldeans, who were united with the Babylonians.