Reference: Ammon, Ammonites
A people inhabiting the territory between the tribe of Gad and the Arabian desert, from the Israelitish conquest of Palestine to the 4th cent. b.c., and perhaps till the 1st cent. a.d.
In Ge 19:38 the Ammonites are said to have descended from a certain Ben-Ammi, but in the Assyrian inscriptions Shalmaneser II., Tiglath-pileser III., and Sennacherib call them Beth-Ammon, placing the determinative for 'man' before Ammon. Except in Ps 83:7, which is late, the people are never called 'Ammon' in the Hebrew OT, but the 'children of Ammon,' or 'Ammonites.'
The really important feature of the story of Ge 19 is that it reveals a consciousness that the Israelites regarded the Ammonites as their kindred. The proper names of individual Ammonites, so far as they are known to us, confirm this view. Probably, therefore, the Ammonites formed a part of that wave of Aram
And the younger bare a son and called him Benammi, which is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day.
And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword and conquered his land, from Arnon unto Jabbok: even unto the children of Ammon. For the borders of the children of Ammon are strong.
That also was taken for a land of Giants - and Giants dwelt therein in old time, and the Ammonites called them Zamzummims:
only, unto the land of the children of Ammon ye came not, nor unto all the coast of the river Jabbok nor unto the cities in the mountains, nor unto whatsoever the LORD our God forbade us.
The Ammonites and the Moabites shall not come into the congregation of the LORD; no, not in the tenth generation, no they shall never come in to the congregation of the LORD,
Chepharammoni, Ophni, and Geba: Twelve cities with their villages.
And this Eglon gathered unto him the children of Ammon, and the Amalekites, and went and smote the children of Israel, and conquered the city of palm trees.
But it chanced, in process of time, that the children of Ammon made war against Israel. Then the elders of Gilead went and fetched Jephthah out of the land of Tob, read more. and said unto him, "Come and be our captain, and let us fight with the children of Ammon." And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, "Did not ye hate me and expel me out of my father's house? How happeneth it then that you come unto me now in time of your tribulation?" And the elders of Gilead answered Jephthah, "Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon, and be our head over all the inhabiters of Gilead." And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, "If ye bring me home again, to fight with the children of Ammon, then if the LORD deliver them before me, I shall be your head."
Then Jephthah sent messengers unto the king of the children of Ammon, saying, "What aileth thee with me that thou comest upon me to fight against my land?" And the king of the children of Ammon answered unto the messengers of Jephthah, "Because Israel took away my land, when they came out of Egypt, even from Arnon unto Jabbok and from thence unto Jordan, now therefore restore those lands again with fair means." read more. And Jephthah sent messengers again unto the children of Ammon, and said unto him, "Thus sayeth Jephthah: Israel took not away the land of Moab, nor the land of the children of Ammon. But when Israel came out of Egypt, they walked through the wilderness, even unto the reed sea, and came to Kadesh, and sent messengers unto the king of Edom saying, 'Let us, we pray thee, go through thy land.' But the king of Edom would not agree thereto. And in like manner they sent unto the king of Moab, but he would not consent. And so Israel abode still in Kadesh. And then they went along through the wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came along by the east side of the land of Moab, and pitched on the other side of the river of Arnon, and came not within the coasts of the Moabites: for Arnon was their utmost border. And then Israel sent messengers unto Sihon, king of the Amorites, and king of Heshbon, and said unto him, 'Let us pass through thy land unto our own country.' But Sihon trusted not Israel, to go through his coasts: but gathered all his people together and pitched in Jahaz, and fought with Israel. But the LORD God of Israel delivered Sihon and all his folk into the hands of Israel. And so Israel smote them and conquered all the land of the Amorites, the inhabiters of the said country. And they conquered all the coasts of the Amorites, from Arnon unto Jabbok, and from the wilderness unto Jordan. So now seeing the LORD God of Israel hath cast out the Amorites before his people, shouldest thou possess the land? Nay, but what people Chemosh thy god driveth out, that land possess thou. But whatsoever nations the LORD our God expelleth, that land ought we to enjoy. And thereto art thou better than Balak the son of Zippor king of Moab? Did he strive with Israel or fight against thee, all the while Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundredth years? Why didst thou not recover them in all that space? Wherefore I have not sinned against thee. But thou doest me wrong, to war against me. The LORD therefore be judge this day, between the children of Israel, and the children of Ammon." Howbeit, the king of the children of Ammon hearkened not unto the words of Jephthah which he sent him. Then the spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah. And he passed over Gilead and Manasseh, and came to Mizpeh that lieth in Gilead, and from thence unto the children of Ammon. And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD and said, "If thou shalt deliver the children of Ammon into my hands, then that thing that cometh out of the doors of my house against me, when I come home in peace from the children of Ammon, shall be the LORD's, and I will offer it up a burnt offering." And so Jephthah went unto the children of Ammon to fight with them. And the LORD delivered them into his hands. And he smote them from Aroer unto Minnith, twenty cities. And so forth to the plain of the vineyards, and made an exceeding great slaughter. And thus the children of Ammon were brought under, before the children of Israel. Then Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house. And see, his daughter came out against him, with timbrels and dances, which was his only child: so that beside her he had neither son nor daughter. And when he saw her, he rent his clothes and said, "Alas, my daughter, thou hast made me stoop, and art one of them that trouble me. For I have opened my mouth unto the LORD, and cannot go back." And she said unto him, "My father, if thou have opened thy mouth unto the LORD, then do with me according to that proceeded out of thy mouth, forasmuch as the LORD hath avenged thee of thine enemies the children of Ammon."
And the men of Ephraim gathered themselves together, and went northward, and said unto Jephthah, "Wherefore wentest thou to fight with the children of Ammon, and didst not call us to go with thee? We will therefore burn thine house upon thee with fire." And Jephthah said unto them, "I and my people were at great strife with the children of Ammon. And I called you. But ye delivered me not out of their hands. read more. And when I saw that ye delivered me not, I put my life in my hands and went upon the children of Ammon. And the LORD delivered them into my hands. Wherefore then are ye come upon me to fight with me?"
And when David was come to Mahanaim, Shobi the son of Nahash out of Rabbah, the city of the children of Ammon, and Machir the son of Ammiel out of Lodebar and Barzillai the Gileadite out of Rogelim,
Zelec an Ammonite; Naharai a Beerothite, the Harness bearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah;
But king Solomon loved many outlandish women: the daughter of Pharaoh, and of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians and Hittites,
And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah and was forty one years old when he began to reign, and reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem the city which the LORD had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. His mother's name was Naamah an Ammonite.
And Rehoboam laid him to rest with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. And his mother's name was Naamah an Ammonite. And Abijam his son reigned in his room.
And the LORD sent upon him men of war out of Chaldea, out of Syria, out of the Moabites, and from the children of Ammon: and sent them into Judah to destroy it, according to the saying of the LORD which he spake by his servants the Prophets.
After that came the children of Moab and the children of Ammon, and with them the Amanim, against Jehoshaphat to battle.
And the Ammonites gave tribute to Uzziah, and his name spread abroad even to Egypt: for he played the man and exceeded.
And he fought with the king of the children of Ammon, and prevailed against them. And the children of Ammon gave him the same year a hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand quarters of wheat and as much barley. So much also did the children of Ammon give him the second year and the third too.
But when Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the servant of the Ammonites heard that, it grieved them sore that there was come a man which sought the wealth of the children of Israel.
But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant of the Ammonites, and Geshem the Arabian heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, "What is this that ye do? Will ye fall away again from the king?"
And Tobiah the Ammonite beside him said, "Let them build on: if a fox go up, he shall break down their stony wall."
But when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and Ammonites, and Ashdodites heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that they had begun to stop up the gaps, they were very wroth;
And at the same time saw I Jews, that married wives of Ashdod, Ammon, and of Moab;
Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek: the Philistines with them that dwell at Tyre.
Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek: the Philistines with them that dwell at Tyre.
and send them to the king of Edom, the king of Moab, the king of Ammon, the king of Tyre, and to the king of Sidon: and that by the messengers, which shall come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah the king of Judah,
Yea all the Jews also that dwelt in Moab, under the Ammonites, in Idumaea and in all the countries, when they heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan governor upon them that were left in Judah:
"Knowest thou not that Baalis king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, to slay thee?" But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.
As concerning the Ammonites, thus the LORD sayeth, "Hath Israel no children, or is he without a heir? Why hath your king then taken Gad in? Wherefore doth his people dwell in his cities?
Make thee a street, that the sword may come toward Rabbah of the Ammonites, and to the strong city of Jerusalem.
Thus sayeth the LORD, 'For three and four wickednesses of the children of Ammon, I will not spare them: because they ripped up the women great with child in Gilead, to make the borders of their lands the wider. Therefore I will kindle a fire in the walls of Rabbah, that shall consume her palaces: with a great cry, in the day of battle, in tempest and in the day of storm. read more. So that their king shall go into captivity, he and his princes together,' sayeth the LORD."
I have heard the despite of Moab, and the blasphemies of the children of Ammon: how they have shamefully intreated my people, and magnified themselves within the borders of their land. Therefore as truly as I live, sayeth the LORD of Hosts the God of Israel, Moab shall be as Sodom, and Ammon as Gomorrah: even dry thorn hedges, salt pits and perpetual wilderness. The residue of my folk shall spoil them, the remnant of my people shall have them in possession.