1. A spot in the valley of the Jordan and near the Jabbok, where Jacob set up his tents on his return from Mesopotamia, Ge 33:17. Joshua assigned the city subsequently built here to the tribe of Gad, Jos 13:27. Gideon tore the flesh of the principal men of Succoth with thorn and briars, because they returned him a haughty answer when pursuing the Midianites, Jg 8:5. It seems to have lain on the east side of the Jordan; but may possibly have been on the west side, at the place now called Sakut. Compare 1Ki 7:46; Ps 60:6.
2. The first encampment of the Israelites, on their way out of Egypt, Ex 12:37.
booths. (1.) The first encampment of the Israelites after leaving Ramesses (Ex 12:37); the civil name of Pithom (q.v.).
(2.) A city on the east of Jordan, identified with Tell Dar'ala, a high mound, a mass of debris, in the plain north of Jabbok and about one mile from it (Jos 13:27). Here Jacob (Ge 32:17,30; 33:17), on his return from Padan-aram after his interview with Esau, built a house for himself and made booths for his cattle. The princes of this city churlishly refused to afford help to Gideon and his 300 men when "faint yet pursuing" they followed one of the bands of the fugitive Midianites after the great victory at Gilboa. After overtaking and routing this band at Karkor, Gideon on his return visited the rulers of the city with severe punishment. "He took the elders of the city, and thorns of the wilderness and briers, and with them he taught the men of Succoth" (Jg 8:13-16). At this place were erected the foundries for casting the metal-work for the temple (1Ki 7:46).
("booths"), from saakak "to entwine" or "shelter."
1. Jerome places it "beyond Jordan" (Quaest. Hebrew). In Jos 13:27-28 Succoth is assigned to Gad. The mention of the "house" and "booths" marks that Jacob stayed there for long, in contrast to his previous pilgrim life in tents, Succoth lay on the route between Pentel on the E. of Jordan and Shechem on the W. of Jordan (Ge 32:30; 33:17-18). (See PENUEL; SHALEM.) Subsequently, in Gideon's days Succoth had 77 chiefs and elders (zeqeenim, "sheikhs", i.e. headmen, literally, old men). See also 1Ki 7:46; 2Ch 4:17. The Talmud makes Succoth a district (so Ps 60:6, "the valley of Succoth") as well as a town, called Ter'alah; this corresponds to the tell or mound Der'ala, thickly strewed with pottery, in the great plain N. of the Jabbok, one mile from the river and three miles from where it leaves the hills. Close by is a smaller mound with ruins. The Bedouin say a city existed formerly on the large mound. E. of tell Der'ala is the ford of the Jabbok, "Mashra'a Canaan," i.e. Canaan's crossing.
The route into Canaan which the nomadic tribes, as Midian, always took ("the way of them that dwell in tents," Jg 8:11) was along the course of the Jabbok and so across Jordan opposite Bethshean, thence spreading over the Esdraelon plain. Gideon (Jg 8:4-17) in pursuing Midian took the same course in reverse order until he reached Succoth. The men of Succoth, as living on this great army route between Canaan and the East, and having regard only to self and no concern for Israel's deliverance and no compassion for the sufferings of Gideon's gallant little band, would give no bread to their brethren lest they should incur the vengeance of Midian; nay more, they added insolence to unkindness. As then they classed themselves with the wicked, of whom thorns are the symbol, their retributive punishment was to be chastised with thorns of the wilderness (the strongest thorns: Isa 5:6; 27:4; Am 1:3; 2Sa 23:6-7). (See Palestine Exploation Quarterly Statement, April 1878, p. 81.)
2. Israel's first camping place after leaving Egypt, half way between Rameses and Etham, Succoth of the Birket Timseh ("the lake of crocodiles") on the road which led by the shortest way to the edge of the wilderness. Possibly from Hebrew sukowt "booths," but probably from the Egyptian sechet or sochot, the "domain of an officer of state" in Lower Egypt not far from Memphis, in the time of Chufu (Ex 12:37; 13:20; Nu 33:5-6).
A place first mentioned in Ge 33:17, where it is said to have been so called because Jacob, on his return from Haran to Canaan, halting at it after his wrestling with the angel at Penuel, built there 'booths' (Heb. succ
1. Canaanite city on the east of the Jordan, allotted to the tribe of Gad. Here Jacob built a house for himself and booths for his cattle. The elders of the city were punished by Gideon for not helping him when he was faint in pursuing the Midianites. Ge 33:17; Jos 13:27; Jg 8:5-16; 1Ki 7:46; 2Ch 4:17; Ps 60:6; 108:7. Identified by some with Tell Darala, 32 12' N, 35 38' E.
1. An ancient town, first heard of in the account of the homeward journey of Jacob from Padan-aram.
The name is derived from the fact of Jacob's having there put up "booths" (succoth) for his cattle as well as a house for himself. From the itinerary of Jacob's return it seems that Succoth lay between Peniel, near the ford of the torrent Jabbok and Shechem. Comp.
and Gene 33:18 In accordance with this is the mention of Succoth in the narrative of Gideon's pursuit of Zebah and Zalluunna.
It would appear from this passage that it lay east of the Jordan, which is corroborated by the fact that it was allotted to the tribe of Gad.
Succoth is named once again after this --in
--as marking the spot at which the brass founderies were placed for casting the metal work of the temple. (Dr. Merrill identifies it with a site called Tell Darala, one mile north of the Jabbok. --ED.)
2. The first camping-place of the Israelites when they left Egypt.
This place was apparently reached at the close of the first days march. Rameses, the starting-place, was probably near the western end of the Wadi-t-Tumeylat. The distance traversed in each day's journey was about fifteen miles.