Reference: Prince, Princess
There are sixteen different Hebrew words so translated. The principal are
1. nasi, 'one raised up'; this is translated also 'ruler, governor, captain, and chief.' It is applied to 'the princes of the congregation': these would be the heads of families in the various tribes. Jos 9:15-21.
2. sar, 'to bear rule,' hence applied to the head men in the tribes, 'chief of the fathers'; and to the satraps in the Persian empire. Es 1:3-21. In Daniel these same are called achashdarpenayya, 'chief governors.' Da 3:2-3,27; 6:1-7. Princess is sarah. 1 Kings 11: 3; La 1:1. The word sar is also employed for the Prince of peace in Isa 9:6, and for Michael the archangel, and for the prince of Persia who opposed him, and for the prince of Grecia. Da 10:13-21.
and Joshua maketh with them peace, and maketh with them a covenant, to keep them alive; and swear to them do the princes of the company. And it cometh to pass, at the end of three days after that they have made with them a covenant, that they hear that they are their neighbours -- that in their midst they are dwelling. read more. And the sons of Israel journey and come in unto their cities on the third day -- and their cities are Gibeon, and Chephirah, and Beeroth, and Kirjath-Jearim -- and the sons of Israel have not smitten them, for sworn to them have the princes of the company by Jehovah God of Israel, and all the company murmur against the princes. And all the princes say unto all the company, 'We -- we have sworn to them by Jehovah, God of Israel; and now, we are not able to come against them; this we do to them, and have kept them alive, and wrath is not upon us, because of the oath which we have sworn to them.' And the princes say unto them, 'They live, and are hewers of wood and drawers of water for all the company, as the princes spake to them.'
in the third year of his reign, he hath made a banquet to all his heads and his servants; of the force of Persia and Media, the chiefs and heads of the provinces are before him, in his shewing the wealth of the honour of his kingdom, and the glory of the beauty of his greatness, many days -- eighty and a hundred days. read more. And at the fulness of these days hath the king made to all the people who are found in Shushan the palace, from great even unto small, a banquet, seven days, in the court of the garden of the house of the king -- white linen, white cotton, and blue, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple on rings of silver, and pillars of marble, couches of gold, and of silver, on a pavement of smaragdus, and white marble, and mother-of-pearl, and black marble -- and the giving of drink in vessels of gold, and the vessels are divers vessels, and the royal wine is abundant, as a memorial of the king. And the drinking is according to law, none is pressing, for so hath the king appointed for every chief one of his house, to do according to the pleasure of man and man. Also Vashti the queen hath made a banquet for women, in the royal house that the king Ahasuerus hath. On the seventh day, as the heart of the king is glad with wine, he hath said to Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven eunuchs who are ministering in the presence of the king Ahasuerus, to bring in Vashti the queen before the king, with a royal crown, to shew the peoples and the heads her beauty, for she is of good appearance, and the queen Vashti refuseth to come in at the word of the king that is by the hand of the eunuchs, and the king is very wroth, and his fury hath burned in him. And the king saith to wise men, knowing the times -- for so is the word of the king before all knowing law and judgment, and he who is near unto him is Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, Memucan, seven heads of Persia and Media seeing the face of the king, who are sitting first in the kingdom -- According to law, what -- to do with queen Vashti, because that she hath not done the saying of the king Ahasuerus by the hand of the eunuchs?' And Memucan saith before the king and the heads, 'Not against the king by himself hath Vashti the queen done perversely, but against all the heads, and against all the peoples that are in all provinces of the king Ahasuerus; for go forth doth the word of the queen unto all the women, to render their husbands contemptible in their eyes, in their saying, The king Ahasuerus said to bring in Vashti the queen before him, and she did not come; yea, this day do princesses of Persia and Media, who have heard the word of the queen, say so to all heads of the king, even according to the sufficiency of contempt and wrath. If to the king it be good, there goeth forth a royal word from before him, and it is written with the laws of Persia and Media, and doth not pass away, that Vashti doth not come in before the king Ahasuerus, and her royalty doth the king give to her companion who is better than she; and the sentence of the king that he maketh hath been heard in all his kingdom -- for it is great -- and all the wives give honour to their husbands, from great even unto small.' And the thing is good in the eyes of the king, and of the princes, and the king doth according to the word of Memucan,
For a Child hath been born to us, A Son hath been given to us, And the princely power is on his shoulder, And He doth call his name Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.
How hath she sat alone, The city abounding with people! She hath been as a widow, The mighty among nations! Princes among provinces, She hath become tributary!
and Nebuchadnezzar the king hath sent to gather the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the honourable judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the province, to come to the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath raised up. Then are gathered the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the honourable judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the province, to the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath raised up: and they are standing before the image that Nebuchadnezzar hath raised up.
and gathered together, the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, and the counsellors of the king, are seeing these men, that the fire hath no power over their bodies, and the hair of their head hath not been singed, and their coats have not changed, and the smell of fire hath not passed on them.
It hath been good before Darius, and he hath established over the kingdom satraps -- a hundred and twenty -- that they may be throughout the whole kingdom, and higher than they three presidents, of whom Daniel is first, that these satraps may give to them an account, and the king have no loss. read more. Then this Daniel hath been overseer over the presidents and satraps, because that an excellent spirit is in him, and the king hath thought to establish him over the whole kingdom. Then the presidents and satraps have been seeking to find a cause of complaint against Daniel concerning the kingdom, and any cause of complaint and corruption they are not able to find, because that he is faithful, and any error and corruption have not been found in him. Then these men are saying, 'We do not find against this Daniel any cause of complaint, except we have found it against him in the law of his God.' Then these presidents and satraps have assembled near the king, and thus they are saying to him: 'O king Darius, to the ages live! Taken counsel have all the presidents of the kingdom, the prefects, and the satraps, the counsellors, and the governors, to establish a royal statute, and to strengthen an interdict, that any who seeketh a petition from any god and man until thirty days, save of thee, O king, is cast into a den of lions.
'And the head of the kingdom of Persia is standing over-against me twenty and one days, and lo, Michael, first of the chief heads, hath come in to help me, and I have remained there near the kings of Persia; and I have come to cause thee to understand that which doth happen to thy people in the latter end of the days, for yet the vision is after days. read more. 'And when he speaketh with me about these things, I have set my face toward the earth, and have been silent; and lo, as the manner of the sons of men, he is striking against my lips, and I open my mouth, and I speak, and say unto him who is standing over-against me: My lord, by the appearance turned have been my pangs against me, and I have retained no power. And how is the servant of this my lord able to speak with this my lord? as for me, henceforth there remaineth in me no power, yea, breath hath not been left in me. 'And he addeth, and striketh against me, as the appearance of a man, and strengtheneth me, and he saith: Do not fear, O man greatly desired, peace to thee, be strong, yea, be strong; and when he speaketh with me, I have strengthened myself, and I say, Let my lord speak, for thou hast strengthened me. And he saith, Hast thou known why I have come unto thee? and now I turn back to fight with the head of Persia; yea, I am going forth, and lo, the head of Javan hath come; but I declare to thee that which is noted down in the Writing of Truth, and there is not one strengthening himself with me, concerning these, except Michael your head.
The only special uses of the word "prince" are --
1. "Princes of provinces"
who were probably local governors or magistrates.
2. The "princes" mentioned in
(see Esth 1:1 ) wore the predecessors of the satraps of Darius Hystaspes. The word princess is seldom used in the Bible, but the persons to which it alludes-- "daughters of kings" are frequently mentioned.
And Ahab saith, 'By whom?' and he saith, 'Thus said Jehovah, By the young men of the heads of the provinces;' and he saith, 'Who doth direct the battle?' and he saith, 'Thou.'