1. Son of Berechiah, and grandson of Iddo the priest; called the son of Iddo in Ezr 5:1; 6:14, and his successor in the priesthood, Ne 12:4,16, perhaps because Berechiah was then dead. Zechariah is the eleventh of the minor prophets. He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, and began to prophesy while yet young, Zec 2:4, in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B. C. 520, in the eighth month of the holy year, and two months after Haggai. These two prophets, with united zeal, encouraged the people to resume the work of the temple, which had been discontinued for some years, Ezr 5:1.
Zechariah's prophecies concerning the Messiah are more particular and express than those of most other prophets, and many of them, like those of Daniel, are couched in symbols. The book opens with a brief introduction; after which six chapters contain a series of visions, setting forth the fitness of that time for the promised restoration of Israel, the destruction of the enemies of God's people, the conversion of heathen nations, the advent of Messiah the Branch, the outpouring and blessed influences of the Holy Spirit, and the importance and safety of faithfully adhering to the service of their covenant God. Zec 7 relates to commemorative observances. Zec 9-11 predict the prosperity of Judah during the times of the Maccabees, together with the fate of Persia and other adjacent kingdoms. The remaining three chapters describe the future destiny of the Jews, the siege of Jerusalem, the triumphs of Messiah, and the glories of the latter day when "Holiness to the Lord" shall be inscribed on all things.
4. A son of Jehoiada. See ZACHARIAS 1.
Jehovah is renowned or remembered. (1.) A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself (1:1) as "the son of Berechiah." In Ezr 5:1; 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo," who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezr 5:1).
His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8, inclusive, and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface (1:1-6), which recalls the nation's past history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions (1:7-6:8), succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolical action, the crowning of Joshua (6:9-15), describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God's Christ.
Chapters 7 and 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be any longer kept, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God's presence and blessing.
The second part of the book (ch. 9-14) bears no date. It is probable that a considerable interval separates it from the first part. It consists of two burdens.
The first burden (ch. 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God's providential dealings with his people down to the time of the Advent.
The second burden (ch. 12-14) points out the glories that await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph of God's kingdom.
(2.) The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion against God (2Ch 24:20), which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him with stones, and he died "in the court of the house of the Lord" (2Ch 24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Mt 23:35; Lu 11:51. (See Zacharias .)
(3.) A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God," in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel (2Ch 26:5).
Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing is known.
(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben (1Ch 5:7).
(5.) One of the porters of the tabernacle (1Ch 9:21).
(6.) 1Ch 9:37.
(7.) A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obededom (1Ch 15:20-24).
(8.) A Kohathite Levite (1Ch 24:25).
(9.) A Merarite Levite (1Ch 27:21).
(10.) The father of Iddo (1Ch 27:21).
(11.) One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time of Jehoshaphat (2Ch 17:7).
(12.) A Levite of the sons of Asaph (2Ch 20:14).
(13.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2Ch 21:2).
(14.) The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2Ch 29:1).
(15.) One of the sons of Asaph (2Ch 29:13).
(16.) One of the "rulers of the house of God" (2Ch 35:8).
(19.) Ne 12:16.
(21.) Isa 8:2.
1. Eleventh of the 12 minor prophets. Son of Berechiah, grandson of Iddo; Ezra (Ezr 5:1; 6:14) says son of Iddo, omitting Berechiah the intermediate link, as less known, and perhaps having died early. Zechariah was probably, like Ezekiel, priest as well as prophet, Iddo being the priest who returned with Zerubbabel and Joshua from Babylon (Ne 12:4,16). His priestly birth suits the sacerdotal character of his prophecies (Zec 6:13).
He left Babylon, where he was born, very young. Zechariah began prophesying in youth (Zec 2:4), "this young man. In the eighth month, in Darius' second year (520 B.C.), Zechariah first prophesied with Haggai (who began two months earlier) in support of Zerubbabel and Shealtiel in the building of the temple, which had been suspended under Pseudo-Smerdis Artaxerxes (Ezr 4:24; 5:1-2; 6:14). The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 (See NEHEMIAH) according to the Peshito; Psalm 111 according to Vulgate.
The Hallelujah characterizes the post exile psalms, it occurs at both beginning and end of Psalms 146 to 150; these are all joyous thanksgivings, free from the lamentations which appear in the other post exile psalms. Probably sung at the consecration of the walls under Nehemiah; but Hengstenberg thinks at the consecration of the second temple. Jewish tradition makes Zecharia a member of the great synagogue. (See ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF.)
4. A Levite in the tabernacle choir under David, "with psalteries on Alamoth" (1Ch 15:20); of the second order of Levites (verse 18), a porter or gatekeeper.
5. One of Judah's princes under Jehoshaphat, sent to teach the law of Jehovah in Judah's cities (2Ch 17:7).
6. Son of Jehoiada, and so cousin of king Joash whom Jehoiada saved from Athaliah (2Ch 24:20). (See ZACHARIAS.)
7. A Kohathite Levite under Josiah, an overseer of the temple repairs (2Ch 34:12).
8. Leader of the sons of Pharosh, returned from Babylon with Ezra (Ezr 8:3).
9. Son of Bebai; also returned, leading 28 males, with Ezra (Ezr 8:11).
11. Of Elam's family; married a foreign wife (Ne 10:26).
12. Ancestor of Uthai or Athaiah (Ne 11:4).
13. A Shilonite, ancestor of Maaseiah (Ne 11:5).
14. A priest, son of Pashur, ancestor of Adaiah (Ne 11:12).
15. Representing Iddo the priest's family, in the time of Joiakim, son of Jeshua (Ne 12:16); probably the same as Zechariah the prophet, son (descendant) of Iddo.
17. A Reubenite chief in Tiglath Pileser's time, at Israel's captivity (1Ch 5:7).
18. A priest who blew the trumpet in the procession of the ark (1Ch 15:24).
19. Son of Isshiah or Jesiah (1Ch 24:25).
20. Hosah's fourth son (1Ch 26:11).
21. A Manassite, father of Iddo, chief in Gilead under David (1Ch 27:21).
22. Father of Jahaziel (2Ch 20:14).
23. Son of Jehoshaphat (2Ch 21:2), slain by Jehoram.
24. Uzziah's prophetical counselor (2Ch 26:5), "who had understanding in the visions of God" ("who had insight into seeing of God"); compare Da 1:17; as this phrase is not equivalent to "who had prophetic visions from God," but to such "seeing of God" as was granted to the elders of Israel in Ex 24:10, it is better to read beyireath for bireoth; so Septuagint, Syriac, Targum Arabic, Raschi, Kimchi, etc., "who was (his) instructer in the fear of God."
25. Father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiah's mother (2Ch 29:1).
26. One of Asaph's family who joined in purifying the temple under Hezekiah (2Ch 29:13).
28. Son of Jeberechiah, taken by Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record" when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz ("hasting to the spoil he hasteth to the prey".) The other witness was Uriah, or Urijah, a priest, whom Urijah used as his tool in copying the Damascus altar. (See URIJAH.) As Isaiah, in order to enforce upon Ahaz' attention the truth symbolized, namely, that Assyria whom Ahaz trusted would soon prey upon Judah, chose one witness from the king's bosom friends, so it is likely Zechariah the other witness was also a bosom friend of Ahaz.
Now 2 Kings 18 informs us that the mother of Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, was Abi daughter of Zechariah; hence it appears Ahaz was Zechariah's son in law; Isaiah naturally chose him as the other of the two witnesses. The undesigned coincidence between the prophet Isaiah (Isa 8:2) and the independent historian (2Ki 16:10; 18:2) confirms the genuineness of both. (See Blunt's Undesigned Coincidences, 2:2.) Thus No. 27 will be the same person as No. 25; else he may have been the same as No. 26.
1. Brother of Ner and uncle of Saul (1Ch 9:37); called Zecher in 1Ch 8:31. 2. A son of Meshelemiah (1Ch 9:21; 26:2,14). 3. A Levite musician (1Ch 15:18,20). 4. A priest in the time of David (1Ch 15:24). 5. A Levite, of the family of Kohath (1Ch 24:25). 6. A Levite, of the family of Merari (1Ch 26:11). 7. Father of Iddo (1Ch 27:21). 8. One of the princes of Judah in the days of Jehoshaphat (2Ch 17:7). 9. A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (2Ch 20:14). 10. Son of Jehoshaphat (2Ch 21:3). 11. Son of Jehoiada the priest (2Ch 24:20). After Jehoiada's death, Zechariah reproved the idolaters and announced God's judgment against them. He was stoned with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the Lord. His dying words, 'The Lord look upon it and require it,' were long remembered. See also Zachariah (No. 9). 12. A prophet, living in the earlier part of Uzziah's reign (2Ch 26:5). 13. Son of Jeroboam II. (2Ki 14:29; 15:8,12). See next article. 14. A man of high repute in Isaiah's day (Isa 8:2). When faithful witnesses were required to attest a solemn prophetic roll, this Zech. was chosen along with Uriah the priest. He is described as son of Jeberechiah, and may possibly be the same as the Asaphite mentioned in 2Ch 29:13. 15. The father of Abi or Abijah, the mother of king Hezekiah (2Ki 18:2; 2Ch 29:1). 16. A reforming Asaphite under Hezekiah (2Ch 29:13). 17. Head of a house of the Reubenites (1Ch 5:7). 18. A Levite, one of the sons of Kohath (2Ch 34:12). 19. One of the rulers of the Temple under Josiah (2Ch 35:8 [1Es 1:8 Zacharias]). 20. The prophet (see Zechariah [Book of]). 21. One of the family of Parosh (Ezr 8:11 [1Es 8:30 Zacharias]). 22. Son of Bebal (Ezr 8:11 [1Es 8:37 Zacharias]). 23. One of the chief men with whom Ezra consulted at the river Ahava (Ezr 8:15; cf. 1Es 8:44; prob. = No. 21). 24. A descendant of Elam (Ezr 10:26,44 [1Es 9:27 Zacharias]). 25. A descendant of Perez (Ne 11:4). 26. A Shilonite (Ne 11:5). 27. Son of Pashhur (Ne 11:12). 28. An Asaphite (Ne 12:35). 29. A priest (Ne 12:41).
ZECHARIAH, king of Israel, was the last member of the house of Jehu to come to the throne, and he occupied it only six months. His assassination begins the period of virtual anarchy with which the history of Israel comes to an end (2Ki 14:29; 15:8-12).
H. P. Smith.
1. A chief man among the Reubenites. 1Ch 5:7.
5. One of the priests in the time of David. 1Ch 15:24.
6. Son of Isshiah, a Levite. 1Ch 24:25.
7. Son of Hosah, a Merarite. 1Ch 26:11.
8. Father of Iddo of the tribe of Manasseh. 1Ch 27:21.
9. One of the princes of Judah whom Jehoshaphat sent with priests and Levites to teach the people. 2Ch 17:7.
10. Levite, father of Jehaziel. 2Ch 20:14.
11. Son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 2Ch 21:2.
12. Son of Jehoiada the priest: he rebuked the people for their idolatry, and by commandment of the king he was stoned by the people in the court of the temple. 2Ch 24:20. He is probably the ZACHARIAS spoken of in Mt 23:35.
13. One who 'had understanding in the visions of God.' 2Ch 26:5.
15. Levite, descendant of Asaph. 2Ch 29:13.
16. Kohathite, one of the overseers at the repairing of the temple. 2Ch 34:12.
17. Prince of Judah, and one of the rulers of the house of God. 2Ch 35:8.
22. One who had married a strange wife. Ezr 10:26.
23, 24. Two ancestors of some who dwelt at Jerusalem on the return from exile. Ne 11:4-5.
25. Priest, the son of Pashur. Ne 11:12.
26. Priest, 'of Iddo.' Ne 12:16.
28. Son of Jeberechiah, taken by Isaiah as a witness. Isa 8:2.
1. The eleventh in order of the twelve minor prophets. He is called in his prophecy the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas in the book of Ezra,
he is said to have been the son of Iddo. It is natural to suppose as the prophet himself mentions his father's name, whereas the book of Ezra mentions only Iddo, that Berechiah had died early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather and the grandson. Zechariah, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young,
and must have been born in Babylon whence he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office. In this he acted in concert with Haggai. Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all their energies to the building of the second temple. To their influence we find the rebuilding of the temple in a great measure ascribed. If the later Jewish accounts may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a member of the Great Synagogue. The genuine writings of Zechariah help us but little in our estimate of his character. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon. He leans avowedly on the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions. Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite; and hence the Jewish saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may be called the peculiarities of his prophecy, he approaches more nearly to Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them he delights in visions; like them he uses symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets. Generally speaking, Zechariah's style is pure, and remarkably free from Chaldaisms.
2. Son of Meshelemiah or Shelemiah a Korhite, and keeper of the north gate of the tabernacle of the congregation,
3. One of the sons of Jehiel.
4. A Levite of the second order in the temple band as arranged by David, appointed to play "with psalteries on Alamoth."
5. One of the princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat.
6. Son of the high priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash king of Judah
and therefore the king's cousin. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his office, and in attempting to check the reaction in favor of idolatry which immediately followed he fell a victim to a conspiracy formed against him by the king, and was stoned in the court of the temple. He is probably the same as the "Zacharias son of Barachias" who was slain between the temple and the altar.
[ZACHARIAS, No. 2] (B.C. 838.)
7. A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Josiah.
8. The leader of the sons of Pharosh who returned with Ezra.
9. Son of Behai.
10. One of the chiefs of the people whom Ezra summoned in council at the river Ahava.
He stood at Ezra's left hand when he expounded the law to the people.
11. One of the family of Elam who had married a foreign wife after the captivity.
12. Ancestor of Athaiah or Uthai.
13. A Shilonite, descendant of Perez.
14. A priest, son of Pashur.
15. The representative of the priestly family of Iddo in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua.
(B.C. 536.) possibly the same as Zechariah the prophet, the son of Iddo.
16. One of the priests, son of Jonathan, who blew with the trumpets at the dedication of the city wall by Ezra and Nehemiah.
17. A chief of the Reubenites at the time of the captivity by Tiglath-pileser.
18. One of the priests who accompanied the ark from the house of Obed-edom.
19. Son of Isshiah or Jesiah, a Kohathite Levite descended from Uzziel.
20. Fourth son of Hosah of the children of Merari.
21. A Manassite.
22. The father of Jahaziel.
23. One of the sons of Jehoshaphat.
24. A prophet in the reign of Uzziah who appears to have acted as the king's counsellor, but of whom nothing is known.
25. The father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiah's mother.
26. One of the family of Asaph in the reign of Hezekiah.
27. One of the rulers of the temple in the reign of Josiah.
28. The son of Jeberechiah, who was taken by the prophet Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record," when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz.
(B.C. 723.) He may have been the Levite of the same name who in the reign of Hezekiah assisted in the purification of the temple.
Another conjecture is that he is the same as Zechariah the father of Abijah, the queen of Ahaz.
ZECHARIAH, king of Israel, 2Ki 14:29. He succeeded his father Jeroboam II, A.M. 3220. He reigned but six months, and was murdered.
2. ZECHARIAH, son of Jehoiada, high priest of the Jews; probably the same as Azariah, 1Ch 6:10-11. He was put to death by the order of Joash, A.M. 3164, 2Ch 24:20-22. Some think this is the Zacharias mentioned Mt 23:35.
3. ZECHARIAH, the eleventh of the twelve lesser prophets, was the son of Barachiah, and the grandson of Iddo. He was born during the captivity, and came to Jerusalem when the Jews were permitted by Cyrus to return to their own country. He began to prophesy two months later than Haggai, and continued to exercise his office about two years. Like his contemporary Haggai, Zechariah begins with exhorting the Jews to proceed in the rebuilding of the temple; he promises them the aid and protection of God, and assures them of the speedy increase and prosperity of Jerusalem; he then emblematically describes the four great empires, and foretels the glory of the Christian church when Jews and Gentiles shall be united under their great High Priest and Governor, Jesus Christ, of whom Joshua the high priest, and Zerubbabel the governor, were types; he predicts many particulars relative to our Saviour and his kingdom, and to the future condition of the Jews. Many moral instructions and admonitions are interspersed throughout the work. Several learned men have been of opinion that the last six chapters were not written by Zechariah; but whoever wrote them, their inspired authority is established by their being quoted in three of the Gospels, Mt 26:31; Mr 14:27; Joh 19:37. The style of Zechariah is so remarkably similar to that of Jeremiah, that the Jews were accustomed to observe, that the spirit of Jeremiah had passed into him. By far the greater part of this book is prosaic; but toward the conclusion there are some poetical passages which are highly ornamented. The diction is in general perspicuous, and the transitions to the different subjects are easily discerned.