1. Son and successor of Jehu king of Israel, B. C. 856, reigned seventeen years. In punishment for his sins and those of his people, Israel was invaded and reduced to great extremities by the Syrians under Hazael and Benhadad. The king humbled himself before God, and deliverance came by the hand of Joash his son, 2Ki 13:19,25.
2. Also called Shallum, 1Ch 3:15, the third son and the successor of Josiah king of Judah, B. C. 609, reigned about three months in Jerusalem. He was deposed by the king of Egypt, 2Ki 23:30-34; 2Ch 36:1-4. See also Jer 22:10-13; Eze 19:3.
(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2Ki 10:35). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of the land by his son Jehoash (2Ki 13:1-9,25).
(3.) Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum (1Ch 3:15). He succeeded his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months (2Ki 23:31,34). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (2Ki 23:32), was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt, where he died in captivity (2Ki 23:33-34; Jer 22:10-12; 2Ch 36:1-4).
1. Jehu's son and successor; king over northern Israel nearly 17 years, 856-840 B.C. (2Ki 13:1-9). His reign began in the 22nd or even the 21st year (Josephus) of Joash of Judah, rather than the 23rd year. His persevering in his father's sin, namely, the worship of Jeroboam's calves, and his leaving the Asherah still standing in Samaria from the time of Ahab (1Ki 16:33), brought on Israel Jehovah's anger more than in Jehu's time; for the longer sin is persevered in, the heavier the final reckoning, an accumulated entail of guilt descends (Ex 20:5). (See GROVE.)
Hazael of Syria and his son Benhadad, as his commander in chief, scourged the people all Jehoahaz' (not as KJV "their") days (Ex 20:3,22), leaving him only 50 horsemen, 10 chariots, and 10,000 footmen, "making the people like the dust by threshing": (Am 1:3) "they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron," i.e. sledges on wheels with iron teeth, cutting the straw as well as threshing out the grain (2Sa 12:31; Isa 28:27). In his affliction Jehoahaz besought the Lord (Ho 5:15; Ps 78:34). "Jehovah hearkened unto him," Israel's oppression moving God's pity, irrespective of Israel's merits (2Ki 14:25-26). So "He gave Israel a saviour," not in Jehoahaz' reign, but in that of Joash and Jeroboam II his successors, who were each in turn "a saviour"; for the answer to prayer often comes when the petitioner is dead and gone (2Ki 14:22-25). Notwithstanding his misfortunes, Jehoahaz had shown "might" in the conflict with Syria.
2. The name given to Jehoram's youngest son during his father's lifetime. Ahaziah was his name as king (2Ch 21:17).
3. Son of Josiah; at his father's death the people took and made him king, 610 B.C., in preference to his two elder brothers, Johanan and Jehoiakim (1Ch 3:15; Jer 22:11; 2Ki 23:30-31,36; 2Ch 36:2). Zedekiah, though put before Jehoahaz or Shallum in 1Ch 3:15, was younger; 2Ch 36:11 he is given precedence because of his longer reign, namely, eleven years, whereas Jehoahaz reigned but three months, then was carried by Pharaoh Necho to Egypt, never to return. Jehoahaz, or Shallum, was born of the same mother as Zedekiah, namely, Hamutal; so they are put together, whereas Jehoiakim was son of Zebudah. With Josiah the regular succession of David's house ceased. The people set up Jehoahaz out of order; Johanan is never after mentioned; the pagan Pharaoh set up Jehoiakim; Nebuchadnezzar Zedekiah.
Jeremiah gave Jehoahaz the significant name Shallum, i.e. "to whom it is requited"; a second "Shallum," son of Jabesh, who reigned only one mouth in Samaria (2Ki 15:13), instead of Shalom, "peaceful," like Solomon: bitter irony! The popular party set great hopes upon him (Jer 22:10-12), as though he would deliver the kingdom from Pharaoh Necho, and "anointed" him with extraordinary ceremony to compensate for his defective title to the throne. Eze 19:3-4 compares him to "a young lion" which "learned to catch the prey and devoured men."
His mother, "Jerusalem," is called "a lioness," referring to her heathenish practices in sad contrast to Jerusalem's name (Isa 29:1) Ariel, "the lion of God," and Judah, "a lion's whelp ... an old lion" in a good sense (Ge 49:9). Meditating revenge for his father's death at Megiddo (2Ki 23:29-30), Jehoahaz was carried captive from "Riblah" in Hamath to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho; "they brought him with chains (or hooks or rings, fastened in wild beasts' noses, appropriate figure as he was compared to a 'lion'; the Assyrian king literally put a hook through the nose of captives, as appears in the Ninevite remains) unto ... Egypt." "He did evil in the sight of the Lord according to all that his fathers had done." Josephus says "he was godless and tyrannical (literally, polluted) in disposition." In 2Ch 36:3 "Jerusalem" is stated to be the place where the king of Egypt deposed him.
Doubtless Pharaoh, having there dethroned him, took him thence to "Riblah." After his victory at Megiddo, Necho intended to march forward to the Euphrates, but hearing that Jehoahaz had ascended the throne as the people's favorite, whose leanings would be on the side of Babylon against Egypt, like Josiah's, he sent a division of his army, which took Jerusalem and dethroned Jehoahaz, and laid a heavy tribute on the land. Eliakim would readily act as his vassal, as owing his elevation to the throne, under the name Jehoiakim to Necho.
Indeed Pharaoh did not recognize the reign of Jehoahaz because elevated without his consent; therefore the words are "Pharaoh made Eliakim king in the room of Josiah his father" (2Ki 23:34). The main army marched slowly to Riblab, his head quarters, and thither he had Jehoahaz brought, then chained and taken to Egypt. The people, feeling Jehoiakim's heavy taxation for the tribute to Egypt (2Ki 23:35), lamented for their favorite in spite of his faults. Jer 22:10; "weep ye not for the dead (Josiah; 2Ch 35:24-25), (so much as) for him that goeth away; for he shall return no more," namely, Jehoahaz. Dying saints are to be envied, living sinners to be pitied. Jeremiah's undesigned coincidence with the facts recorded in the history confirms the truth of both.
1. Jehoahaz of Israel (in 2Ki 14:1 and 4/8/type/j2000'>2Ch 34:8; 36:2,4 Joahaz) succeeded his father Jehu. Our records tell us nothing of him except the length of his reign, which is given as seventeen years (2Ki 13:1), and the low estate of his kingdom, owing to the aggressions of Syria. A turn for the better seems to have come before his death, because the forces of Assyria pressing on the north of Damascus turned the attention of that country away from Israel (2Ki 13:3-5).
2. Jehoahaz of Judah (in 1Es 1:34 Joachaz or Jeconias; in 1Es 1:38 Zarakes) was the popular choice for the throne after the death of Josiah (2Ki 23:30). But Pharaoh-necho, who had obtained possession of all Syria, regarded his coronation as an act of assumption, deposed him in favour of his brother Jehoiakim, and carried him away to Egypt, where he died (2Ki 23:34). Jeremiah, who calls him Shallum, finds his fate sadder than that of his father who fell in battle (Jer 22:10-12).
H. P. Smith.
1. Son and successor of Jehu king of Israel: he reigned from B.C. 856 to 841. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was oppressed by Hazael king of Syria, who compelled him to reduce his army to fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and ten thousand foot soldiers. His submission to Syria continued under Benhadad. But when he prayed to the Lord a 'saviour' was raised up who delivered him out of the hand of the Syrians. 2Ki 13; 14:1,8,17; 25/17/type/j2000'>2Ch 25:17,25.
2. Son and successor of Josiah king of Judah: he reigned only three months, B.C. 610. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho, who sent him in chains to Egypt, where he died. 2Ki 23:30-34; 2Ch 36:1-4. He is called SHALLUM in 1Ch 3:15; Jer 22:11. In the parable of the Lion's whelps in Eze 19:1-9 this king is referred to as being carried in chains to Egypt.
3. Name given to AHAZIAH in 2Ch 21:17. See AHAZIAH, No. 2.
(whom the Lord sustains).
1. The son and successor of jehu, reigned 17 years, B.C. 856-840, over Israel in Samaria. His inglorious history is given in
Throughout his reign, ver.
he was kept in subjection by Hazael king of Damascus. Jehoahaz maintained the idolatry of Jeroboam; but in the extremity of his humiliation he besought Jehovah, and Jehovah gave Israel a deliverer --probably either Jehoash, vs.
and 2Kin 13:25 or Jeroboam II.,
2. Jehoahaz, otherwise called Shallum, son of Josiah, whom he succeeded as king of Judah. He was chosen by the people in preference to his elder (comp.
and 2Kin 23:36 ) brother, B.C. 610, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. Pharaoh-necho sent to Jerusalem to depose him and to fetch him to Riblah. There he was cast into chains, and from thence he was taken into Egypt, where he died.
3. The name given,
to Ahaziah, the youngest son of Jehoram king of Judah.
JEHOAHAZ, otherwise SHALLUM, the son of Josiah, king of Judah, Jer 22:11. Josiah having been wounded mortally by Necho, king of Egypt, and dying of his wounds at Megiddo, Jehoahaz was made king in his room, though he was not Josiah's eldest son, 2Ki 23:30-32. He was in all probability thought fitter than any of his brethren to make head against the king of Egypt. He was twenty-three years old when he began to reign, and he reigned about three months only in Jerusalem, in the year of the world 3395. King Necho, at his return from the expedition against Carchemish, provoked at the people of Judah for having placed this prince upon the throne without his consent, sent for him to Riblah, in Syria, divested him of the kingdom, loaded him with chains, and sent him into Egypt, where he died, Jer 22:11-12. Jehoiakim, or Eliakim his brother, was made king in his room.