The son of Ahitub, and father of Ahimaaz, high-priest of the Jews in the reigns of Saul and David. See ABIATHAR.
righteous. (1.) A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2Sa 8:17; 1Ch 24:3), high priest in the time of David (2Sa 20:25) and Solomon (1Ki 4:4). He is first mentioned as coming to take part with David at Hebron (1Ch 12:27-28). He was probably on this account made ruler over the Aaronites (1Ch 27:17). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several important occasions (1Ch 15:11; 2Sa 15:24-29,35-36); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high priest," and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1Ki 2:27,35; 1Ch 29:22). In him the line of Phinehas resumed the dignity, and held it till the fall of Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his sacred office by his son Azariah (1Ki 4:2; comp. 1Ch 6:3-9).
(3.) "The scribe" set over the treasuries of the temple by Nehemiah along with a priest and a Levite (Ne 13:13).
(4.) The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Ne 3:4).
1. Son of Ahitub, of the house of Eleazar, son of Aaron (1Ch 24:3). Joined David at Hebron after Saul's death, with 22 captains of his father's house. At Absalom's revolt Zadok and the Levites bearing the ark accompanied David in leaving Jerusalem, but at his request returned with the ark and along with Hushai and Abiathar became David's medium of knowing events passing in the city, through Jonathan and Ahimaaz. At Absasalom's death David desired Zadok and Abiathar to persuade the elders of Judah to invite him to return (2-Samuel/15'>2 Samuel 15; 2 Samuel 17; 2 Samuel 19). Zadok remained faithful in Adonijah's rebellion when Abiathar joined it. Zadok, with Nathan the prophet, anointed Solomon at Gihon by David's command (a second anointing took place subsequently: 1Ch 29:22). So Solomon put Zadok instead of Abiathar, fulfilling the curse on Eli (1 Samuel 2; 3; 1Ki 2:27,35; 4:4; 1Ch 29:22). (See ABIATHAR.)
David made him ruler over the Aaronites (1Ch 27:17); their number in 1Ch 12:27-28, is said to be 3,700 under Jehoiada. Zadok did not survive to the dedication of Solomon's temple, but Azariah his son or grandson (1Ch 6:8-9) was then high priest (1Ch 6:10; 1Ki 4:2). His descendants continued in the high priesthood (compare 2Ch 31:10, "Azariah of the house of Zadok chief priest") until the time of Antiochus Eupator. The double high priesthood of Zadok and Abiathar answers to that of the chief priest and second priest (2Ki 25:18; Lu 3:2 "Annas and Caiaphas being high priest);" compare 2Ch 31:10, "Azariah the chief priest of the house of Zadok." Zadok ministered mainly before the tabernacle at Gibeon (1Ch 16:39). Abiathar bad charge of the ark in Jerusalem; so formerly Eleazar and Ithamar, Hophni and Phinehas, were joint chief priests. Even while the line of Ithamar in the person of Eli was foremost, Eleazar's house held its ground on a kind of parity, Ahitub, Zadok's father, being called "ruler of the house of God" (1Ch 9:11; Ne 11:11).
2. A second Zadok, son of a second Ahitub, son of Amariah; in king Amaziah's time. ((See HIGH PRIEST. ) Many links are omitted in these lists (1Ch 6:12; 9:11; Ezr 7:1-5); the repetition of the same names in a family is natural.
4. Son of Baana, repaired the wall (Ne 3:4), signed the covenant (Ne 10:21); a chief of the people, of the tribe of Judah (for Baana was a Netophathite of Judah, 2Sa 23:29). Intermarriages of Judah with the tribe of Levi were frequent, Whence Zadok appears in Judah (Mt 1:14).
6. Ne 11:11; 1Ch 9:11. Son of Meraioth, son of Ahitub; some omission or error of copyists is suspected from comparing the list, Ezr 7:1-5; 1Ch 6:3-14, where a Meraioth is grandfather or great grandfather of Zadok. The name is equivalent to the "Justus" of Ac 1:26; 18:7; Col 4:11.
7. Set over the treasuries by Nehemiah (Ne 13:13) to distribute to brethren; "the scribe."
1. Founder of an important branch of the priesthood in Jerusalem. The reading of Massoretic Text in 2Sa 8:17 (= 1Ch 18:16) being doubtful, there is no definite information concerning his family except in the genealogical lists in 1Ch 6:4-15,50-53; 24:3, in which his descent is traced from Eleazar the elder son of Aaron; but these details are of doubtful reliability. He is first mentioned in 2Sa 8:17, where perhaps he should be associated with Abiathar in the correct text, as he is in 2Sa 15:24 ff. He was appointed priest by Solomon in place of Abiathar (1Ki 2:26 f., 1Ki 2:35), because of his own loyalty (1Ki 1:8) and the disloyalty of Abiathar (1Ki 1:7). From this it is evident that his position hitherto had been inferior to that of Abiathar, although his name regularly has the precedence in Samuel. From the time of Solomon the descendants of Zadok constituted the most prominent family among the priests, the high priests being taken from them till the time of the Maccabees. To Ezekiel the Zadokites are the only legitimate priests (Eze 40:46; 43:19; 44:16; 48:11). 2. A warrior of David's, of the house of Aaron (1Ch 12:28), identified by Josephus (Ant. VII. ii. 2) with 1, against all probability. 3. Maternal grandfather of Jotham (2Ki 15:33; 2Ch 27:1). 4. Son of Baanah (see Ezr 2:2; Ne 7:7), a helper of Nehemiah in re-building the wall (Ne 3:4). 5. Son of Immer, repairer of a portion of the wall (Ne 3:29). 6. 'The scribe,' probably a priest, appointed a treasurer by Nehemiah (Ne 13:13); perhaps to be identified with 5. 7. One of the 'chiefs of the people' who sealed the covenant (Ne 10:21). 8. A high priest later than 1 (1Ch 6:12 [cf. Ezr 7:2; Ne 11:11]
1. Son of Ahitub, of the house of Eleazar. He was priest in the reign of David, and though Abiathar was called high priest, at times Zadok is named before him. Abiathar was set aside by Solomon, and Zadok became high priest. 2Sa 8:17; 15:24-36; 17:15; 18:19-27; 19:11; 20:25; 1Ki 1:8-45; 2:35; 4/2'>4:2,4; 1Ch 6:8,53, etc.; Eze 40:46; 43:19; 44:15; 48:11.
4. A descendant of Levi and a man of valour who joined David at Hebron. 1Ch 12:28.
7. One who sealed the covenant. Ne 10:21.
9. A scribe who was made one of the treasurers for the Lord's house. Ne 13:13.
1. Son of Ahitub and one of the two chief priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other. Zadok was of the house of Eleazar the son of Aaron,
and eleventh in descent from Aaron.
He joined David at Hebron after Saul's death,
and thenceforth his fidelity to David was inviolable. When Absalom revolted and David fled from Jerusalem, Zadok and all the Levites bearing the ark accompanied him. When Absalom was dead, Zadok and Abiathar were the persons who persuaded the elders of Judah to invite David to return.
When Adonijah, in David's old age, set up for king, and had persuaded Joab, and Abiathar the priest, to join his party, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by David to anoint Solomon to be king in his room.
For this fidelity he was rewarded by Solomon who "thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord," and "put in Zadok the priest" in his room.
From this time, however, we hear little of him. Zadok and Abiathar were of nearly equal dignity.
The duties of the office were divided, Zadok ministered before the tabernacle at Gibeon,
Abiathar had the care of the ark at Jerusalem.
2. According to the genealogy of the high priests in
there was a second Zadok, son of a second Ahitub son of Amariah, about the time of King Ahaziah. It is probable that no such person as this second Zadok ever existed, but that the insertion of the two names is a copyist's error.
3. Father of Jerushah, the wife of King Uzziah and mother of King Jotham.
4. Son of Baana, and 5. Son of Immer, persons who repaired a portion of the wall in Nehemiah's time.
and Nehe 11:11 mention is made, in a genealogy, of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub; but it can hardly be doubtful that Meraioth is inserted by the error of a copyist, and that Zadok the son of Ahitub is meant.
ZADOK, son of Ahitub, high priest of the Jews, of the race of Eleazar. At the death of Ahimelech, or Abiathar, he came to the pontificate, A.M.
2944. For some time there were two high priests in Israel, 2Sa 8:17; 15:24, &c; 19:11, 12; 1Ki 1:8, &c. After the death of David, 1Ki 2:35, Solomon excluded Abiathar from the high priesthood, because he espoused the party of Adonijah, and made Zadok high priest alone.