(12.) Illustration: Blast Furnace
(13.) (1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Da 3:22-23; comp. Jer 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
(16.) (4.) Heb alil, a crucible; only used in Ps 12:6.
(17.) (5.) Heb tannur, oven for baking bread (Ge 15:17; Isa 31:9; Ne 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace and a burning lamp" (Ge 15:17), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him. (See Oven.)
Ne 3:11; 12:38, "the tower of the furnaces," i.e. of the (bakers') ovens. Ho 7:7. There were also the smelting furnace, the refining furnace, the type of affliction and testing probation (De 4:20; Pr 17:3; 27:21), the lime-kiln. The brick-kiln furnace had an opening at the top to cast in the materials, and a door at the bottom to extract the metal. The Babylonians used it to inflict their cruel capital punishments (Da 3:22-26; Jer 29:22).
English Version tr of kibsh
Furnaces were used for various purposes, as smelting the crude metal, and for crucibles to refine the metal; for lime and bricks; and as an oven. Ge 19:28; Ex 9:8,10; Pr 17:3. The fiery furnace in Babylon must have been very large for four persons to have walked therein. It may have been the furnace they used for their bricks. Da 3:6-26. The furnace is used figuratively for the oppression of Egypt, out of which God delivered the Israelites, De 4:20; and for the afflictions God afterwards brought them into to purify them from their idolatry and sin. 22/18'>Eze 22:18,22. In the N.T. the furnace of fire refers to the place of eternal punishment. Mt 13:42,50.
Various kinds of furnaces are noticed in the Bible, such as a smelting or calcining furnace,
especially a lime-kiln,
a refining furnace,
Nebuchadnezzar's furnace, a large furnace built like a brick-kiln,
with two openings one at the top for putting in the materials, and another below for removing them; the potter's furnace, Ecclus. 27:5; The blacksmith's furnace. Ecclus. 38:28. The Persians were in the habit of using the furnace as a means of inflicting punishment.
FURNACE, a fireplace for melting gold and other metals. "The fining pot is for silver, the furnace for gold," Pr 17:3. It signifies also a place of cruel bondage and oppression, such as Egypt was to the Israelites, who there met with much hardship, rigour, and severity, to try and purge them, De 4:20; Jer 11:4; the sharp and grievous afflictions and judgments, wherewith God tries his people, Eze 22:18; 20:22; also a place of torment, as Nebuchadnezzar's fiery furnace, Da 3:6,11. On the last we may remark, that this mode of putting to death is not unusual in the east in modern times. After speaking of the common modes of punishing with death in Persia, Chardin says, "But there is still a particular way of putting to death such as have transgressed in civil affairs, either by causing a dearth, or by selling above the tax by a false weight, or who have committed themselves in any other manner: they are put upon a spit and roasted over a slow fire, Jer 29:22. Bakers, when they offend, are thrown into a hot oven. During the dearth in 1668, I saw such ovens heated in the royal square in Ispahan, to terrify the bakers, and deter them from deriving advantage from the general distress."