high-born. (1.) Generally "Huram," one of the sons of Bela (1Ch 8:5).
(2.) Also "Huram" and "Horam," king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon (2Sa 5:11; 1Ch 14:1). After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple (1Ki 5:1; 9:11; 2Ch 2:3). He also took part in Solomon's traffic to the Eastern Seas (1Ki 9:27; 10:11; 2Ch 8:18; 9:10).
(3.) The "master workman" whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In 2Ch 2:13 "Huram my father" should be Huram Abi, the word "Abi" (rendered here "my father") being regarded as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent to "master." (Comp. 1Ki 7:14; 2Ch 4:16.) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon's temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.
(Huram in Chronicles usually, except 1Ch 14:1, in the ketibh, the original Hebrew text).
1. King of Tyre. Sent carpenters, masons, and cedars to David to build his palace (2Sa 5:11). Eupolemon (see Polyhistor, Fragm. Hist. Greek, 3 fr. 18), apparently on the authority of Dius and Menunder of Ephesus in file time of Alexander the Great, states, "David reduced the Syrians near the Euphrates, and Commagene, the Assy. finns, and Phoenicians in Gilead, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Ituraeans, and Nabathaeans; and made an expedition against Suron (Huram?) king of Tyre and Phoenicia, and compelled them all to pay tribute to the Jews." This confirms 2 Samuel 8; 9, and adds particulars drawn probably from Phoenician or other non-Israelite sources. Hiram was "ever a lover of David" (1Ki 5:1,10-12). So he made a "league" with his son Solomon (beriyt, "a covenant," recognizing Jehovah, and guaranteeing to Jewish sojourners at Tyre religious liberty).
The mention that "there was peace between Hiram and Solomon" may hint at there having been once war between Hiram and David, before Hiram became "a lover of David." Hiram gave Solomon for the temple cedars and firs, and gold, six score talents, according to all his desire, and Solomon in return gave Hiram 20,000 measures of wheat and 26 measures of pure oil yearly; the mercantile coast cities being dependent on the grain and olive abounding region of Palestine (Ac 12:20 end). Solomon also gave Hiram 20 cities in Galilee, which did not satisfy him, and which therefore he called Cabul. (See CABUL.) (1Ki 9:11-14,27-28).
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon. Hiram sent also in the navy expert shipmen to Ophir from Ezion-Geber, with Solomon's servants; and a navy. (See OPHIR.) With Solomon's navy of Tharshish (1Ki 10:22) to share in the Mediterranean trade. Dius assigns to Hiram a 34 years' reign, and names Abibal as his father, Baleazar as his son and successor. Josephus (Ant. 8:2, section 8) States that the correspondence between Hiram and Solomon was kept in his day among the Tyrian archives.
2. King Hiram sent to Solomon an overseer of workmen skilled in working gold, silver, brass, iron, stone, wood, purple, linen, etc. Bezaleel, similarly (Ex 31:18), but by supernatural endowment, combined weaving with metallurgy. He cast the two great brass pillars of the temple, and made the lavers, shovels and basins (1Ki 7:13-40). He is called "my father," i.e. a title of honour, counselor, master workman (Ge 45:8). "Son of a widow of Naphtali," but in 2Ch 2:13-14, of one "of the daughters of Dan," i.e. she was by birth a Danite, and married into Naphtali. When her husband died she married again, as widow of a Naphtalite, a Tyrian to whom she bore Hiram Blunt (Undesigned Coincidences) makes her of the colony Dan or Laish in Naphtali, bordering on Sidoninn or Tyrian territory.
1. King of Tyre, son and successor of Abihaal. When David was firmly established on his throne, Hiram, we are told, sent messengers to him, and, in order to show his goodwill, gave David materials for building his palace, sending at the same time workmen to assist in the building (2Sa 5:11; 1Ch 14:1. This first mention of Hiram is somewhat abrupt, and leads to the supposition that there must have been some earlier intercourse between him and David, the details of which have not come down to us. A real friendship, however, undoubtedly existed between the two (1Ki 5:1), and this was extended to Solomon after the death of David. A regular alliance was made when Solomon came to the throne, Hiram supplying men and materials for the building of the house of the Lord, while Solomon, in return, sent corn and oil to Hiram. Another sign of friendliness was their joint enterprise in sending ships to Ophir to procure gold (1Ki 9:26-28; 10:11; 2Ch 8:17-18; 9:10,21). A curious episode is recounted in 1Ki 9:10,14, according to which Solomon gave Hiram 'twenty cities in the land of Galilee.' Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, though he gave Solomon 'sixscore talents of gold.' In the parallel account (2Ch 8:1-2) it is Hiram who gives cities (the number is not specified) to Solomon.
There is altogether considerable confusion in the Biblical references to Hiram, as a study of the passages in question shows. When these are compared with extra-Biblical information which we possess in the writings of early historians, discrepancies are emphasized. While, therefore, the friendly intercourse between Hiram and Solomon (as well as with David) is unquestionably historical, it is not always possible to say the same of the details.
2. The name of an artificer from Tyre 'filled with wisdom and understanding and cunning, to work all works in brass' (see 1Ki 7:18-47); he is also spoken of as 'skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson
1. King of Tyre, who loved David and was a friend of Solomon. By his servants he supplied both timber and stone for the temple and the palaces of Solomon. Their navies also united to bring the produce of other lands. Solomon gave to Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee, but Hiram was not pleased with them: he called them, in Aramaic CABUL, 'displeasing or dirty;' and the cities were eventually returned to Solomon. 2 Sam. 5:11; 1Ki 5; 9:11-27; 10:11,22; 1Ch 14:1, etc. He is called HURAM in 2Ch 2:3-12; 8:2,18; 9:10,21.
2. A skilful workman of Tyre, filled with wisdom and understanding, who was sent to make things for the temple. His father was a man of Tyre, and he is called "the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan" in 2Ch 2:14; but in 1Ki 7:14 it reads "a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali," which may mean that her husband was a man of Naphtali. 1Ki 7:13,40,45. He is called HURAM in 2Ch 2:13; 4:11,16.
HIRAM, king of Tyre, and son of Abibal, is mentioned by profane authors as distinguished for his magnificence, and for adorning the city of Tyre. When David was acknowledged king by all Israel, Hiram sent ambassadors with artificers, and cedar, to build his palace. Hiram also sent ambassadors to Solomon, to congratulate him on his accession to the crown. Solomon desired of him timber and stones for building the temple, with labourers. These Hiram promised, provided Solomon would furnish him with corn and oil. The two princes lived on the best terms with each other.