Reference: Offerings, The
The sacrifices described in the O.T. show the ground and means of approach to God. They are all typical, having no intrinsic value, but they foreshadowed Christ, who, as antitype, fulfilled them all. The principal offerings are four: the Burnt offering, the Meat offering, the Peace offering, and the Sin offering, with which the Trespass offering may be associated. This is the order in which they are given in the opening chapters of Leviticus, where we have their significance presented from God's side, beginning with Christ in devotedness to God's glory even unto death, and coming down to the need of guilty man. If the question be of a sinner's approach to God, the sin offering must necessarily come first: the question of sin must be met for the conscience before the one who approaches can be in the position of a worshipper.
The offerings, in one respect, divide themselves into two classes, namely, the sweet-savour offerings, presented by worshippers, and the sin offerings, presented by those who having sinned needed to be restored to the position of worshippers. But even in the sin offering the fat was burnt on the brazen altar, and it is once said to be for a sweet savour (Le 4:31), thus forming a link with the burnt offering. The sweet-savour offerings represent Christ's perfect offering of Himself to God, rather than the laying of sins on the substitute by Jehovah.
The various kinds and the sex of the animals presented in the sin offerings are proportioned to the measure of responsibility in Lev. 4, and to the offerer's ability in Lev. 5. Thus the priest or the whole congregation for a sin offering had to bring a bullock, but a goat or a lamb sufficed for one of the people. In the sweet-savour offerings the offerer was left free to choose a victim, and the different value of the animals offered gave evidence to the measure of appreciation of the sacrifice: thus if a rich man brought a sheep instead of a bullock, it would show that he undervalued the privileges within his reach.
The blood was sprinkled and poured out: it might not be eaten; the blood was the life, and God claimed it: cf. Le 17:11. The fat of the offerings was always to be burnt, for it represented the spontaneous and energetic action of the heart of Christ godward. Ps 40:7-8. Leaven, which always signifies what is human and hence evil (for if the human element is introduced into and works in the things of God it is evil), might never be burnt on the altar to God, nor be in any of the offerings except in one special form of the meat offering (Le 23:16-21), and in the bread accompanying a peace offering. Le 7:13. Honey was forbidden in the meat offering, as denoting mere human sweetness. Salt was to be added to the meat offering and used in the corbans. Le 2:13; Eze 43:24. Salt is preservative and gives a savour. Nu 18:19; 2Ch 13:5; Col 4:6. The breast of the victim may be taken as emblematic of love, and the shoulder of strength.
The principal Hebrew words used in reference to the offerings are:
1. Olah, Alah, from 'to make to ascend.' Translated burnt offering.
2. Minchah, from 'a present, gift, oblation.' Translated meat offering. Others prefer to translate it meal offering.
3. Shelem, from 'to be whole, complete,' to be at peace, in friendship with any one. Translated peace offering. The ordinary form is plural, and may be rendered 'prosperities offering.'
4. Chattath, from 'to sin.' Constantly translated sin offering.
5. Asham, from 'to be guilty.' Translated trespass offering.
6. Tenuphah, from 'to lift up and down, wave.' Translated wave offering.
7. Terumah, from 'to be lifted up.' Translated heave offering.
As to the burning of the sacrifices different Hebrew words are employed. Besides the word alah, mentioned above, the word qatar is commonly used for burning on the altar: it signifies 'to burn incense,' 'to fumigate.' But where the carcase of the sin offering was burnt, the word used is saraph, which signifies 'to burn up, consume.' Thus what ascends as a sweet savour is distinguished from what is consumed under the judgement of God.
THE BURNT OFFERING. This is typical of Christ presenting Himself according to the divine will for the accomplishment of the purpose and maintenance of the glory of God where sin was taken account of. In the type the victim and the offerer were essentially distinct, but in Christ the two were necessarily combined. The burnt offering, where not specifically prescribed, was brought for a man's acceptance. The expression "of his own voluntary will " in Le 1:3 is better translated, "He shall offer it for his acceptance." The victim might be a male of the herd, or a sheep or a goat of the flock, or be turtle doves or young pigeons, according to the ability of the offerer, or the appreciation he had of the offering. These offerings were different in degree, but the same in kind. The male is the highest type of offering: no female is mentioned in the burnt offering.
After the offerer had laid his hands on the victim, he killed it (except in the case of birds, which the priest killed). From Leviticus 1 it would appear that the offerer also flayed it, cut it in pieces, and washed the inward parts and legs in water; but the expressions can be taken in an impersonal sense, 'Let it be flayed,' etc., and these acts may have been done by the priests or the Levites. (The Levites flayed the sacrifices in 2Ch 29:34, when the priests were too few.) The priest sprinkled the blood round about upon the altar, and, except the skin which was the priest's, the whole of the animal was burnt as a sweet savour on the altar. It made atonement for the offerer, who found acceptance in its value. It was typical of Christ's perfect offering up of Himself, being tested in His inmost parts by the searching fire of divine judgement. Lev. 1. (This aspect of the cross is seen in such passages as Php 2:8; Joh 10:14-17; 13:31; 17:4; Ro 5:18, etc.)
Leviticus 6 gives the law of the burnt offering. "It is the burnt offering because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it . . . . it shall not be put out." This refers to the morning and evening lambs; they formed a perpetual burnt offering. Ex 29:38-41. It is to be remarked that it was "all night unto the morning" (although it was perpetual), doubtless to point out that Christ is for Israel ever a sweet savour to God, even during the present period of Israel's darkness and forgetfulness. Aaron had to put on his linen garments to remove the ashes from the altar to 'the place of ashes' beside the altar: he then changed his dress and carried the ashes outside the camp. The ashes were the proof that the sacrifice had been completely accepted (Ps 20:3, margin. In 'the morning' Israel will know that their acceptance and blessing is through the work of their Messiah on the cross. The daily sacrifice was offered by the priest as acting for the whole nation, and presented typically the ground of its blessings and privileges. Hence faith made much of it. Ezr 3:3; Da 8:11,13,26; 9:27.
THE MEAT OFFERING. In Lev. 2 the intrinsic character of this offering is given, though in offering the burnt offering a meat offering was added. Here was no blood-shedding, and consequently no atonement. The burnt offering typified the Lord Jesus in devotedness to death; the meat offering represents Him in His life
And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He talked with him, a pillar of stone. And he poured a drink offering on it, and he poured oil on it.
and one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before Jehovah. And you shall put all in the hands of Aaron and in the hands of his sons, and shall wave them for a wave offering before Jehovah. read more. And you shall take them from their hands, and burn them upon the altar for a burnt offering, for a sweet savor before Jehovah. It is an offering made by fire to Jehovah. And you shall take the breast of the ram of Aaron's consecration and wave it for a wave offering before Jehovah. And it shall be your portion. And you shall sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is lifted from the ram of the consecration, from what is Aaron's, and from what is for his sons. And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute forever from the sons of Israel. For it is a heave offering. And it shall be a heave offering from the sons of Israel of the sacrifices of their peace offerings, even their heave offering to Jehovah.
And this is what you shall offer upon the altar: two lambs of the first year day by day forever. The one lamb you shall offer in the morning, and the other lamb you shall offer at evening. read more. And with the one lamb a tenth part of flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine, a drink offering.
And with the one lamb a tenth part of flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine, a drink offering. And you shall offer the other lamb at evening; you shall do to it according to the meal offering of the morning, and according to its drink offering, for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to Jehovah.
And you shall offer the other lamb at evening; you shall do to it according to the meal offering of the morning, and according to its drink offering, for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to Jehovah.
If his offering is a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish. He shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before Jehovah.
And every sacrifice of your food offering shall you season with salt. And you shall not allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your food offering. You shall offer salt with all your offerings.
And he shall take away all its fat, as the fat is taken away from the sacrifice of peace offerings. And the priest shall burn it on the altar for a sweet savor to Jehovah. And the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.
And he shall take away all its fat, as the fat is taken away from the sacrifice of peace offerings. And the priest shall burn it on the altar for a sweet savor to Jehovah. And the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.
And if a soul sins and hears the voice of swearing, and is a witness, and he has seen or known, if he does not tell it, then he shall bear his iniquity. Or if a soul touches any unclean thing, whether a dead body of an unclean beast, or a dead body of unclean cattle, or the dead body of unclean swarming things, and if it is hidden from him that he is unclean and guilty-- read more. or if he touches the uncleanness of man, whatever uncleanness by which he is unclean, and it is hidden from him, and he knows, then he shall be guilty. Or if a soul swears, pronouncing with his lips to do evil or to do good, whatever it is that a man speaks rashly with an oath, and it is hidden from him, and he knows, then he shall be guilty of one of these. And it shall be when he is guilty in one of these, he shall confess that in which he has sinned. And he shall bring his trespass offering to Jehovah for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a doe of the goats, for a sin offering. And the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin.
And he shall bring his trespass offering to Jehovah for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a doe of the goats, for a sin offering. And the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin. And if his hand cannot reach to a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass which he has committed, two turtle-doves or two young pigeons to Jehovah-- one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering.
And if his hand cannot reach to a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass which he has committed, two turtle-doves or two young pigeons to Jehovah-- one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering. And he shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer for the sin offering first, and shall wring off its head from its neck, but shall not divide it.
And he shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer for the sin offering first, and shall wring off its head from its neck, but shall not divide it. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood shall be drained at the bottom of the altar. It is a sin offering.
And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood shall be drained at the bottom of the altar. It is a sin offering. And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the ordinance. And the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he has sinned, and it shall be forgiven him. read more. But if he is not able to bring two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He shall put no oil on it, neither shall he put frankincense on it. For it is a sin offering. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his full handful of it, a memorial of it, and burn it on the altar, on the fire offering to Jehovah. It is a sin offering. And the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin that he has sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him. And the rest shall be the priest's, as a food offering.
And this is the law of the food offering. The sons of Aaron shall offer it before Jehovah before the altar. And he shall take from it his handful of the flour of the food offering, and of the oil of it, and all the frankincense which is on the food offering, and shall burn it on the altar for a sweet savor, the memorial of it, to Jehovah. read more. And the rest of it Aaron and his sons shall eat. It shall be eaten with unleavened bread in the holy place. They shall eat it in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation. It shall not be baked with leaven. I have given it as their portion of My offerings made by fire. It is most holy, as is the sin offering, and as the trespass offering is. All the males among the sons of Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute forever in your generations concerning the offerings of Jehovah made by fire. Everyone that touches them shall be holy.
All the males among the priests shall eat of it. It is most holy.
And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings which he shall offer to Jehovah. If he offers it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mixed with oil, of fine flour, fried. read more. Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings.
Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings. And from it he shall offer one cake out of the whole sacrifice for a heave offering to Jehovah, to the priest that sprinkles the blood of the peace offerings; it is his. read more. And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered. He shall not leave any of it until the morning. But if the sacrifice of his offering is a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice. And on the next day also the rest of it shall be eaten. But the rest of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burned with fire. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offerings is eaten at all the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed to him who offers it. It shall be an abomination, and the soul that eats of it shall bear his iniquity. And the flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten. It shall be burned with fire. And as for the flesh, all who are clean shall eat of it. But the soul that eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings that pertain to Jehovah, having his uncleanness on him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people. And the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, of the uncleanness of man, or any unclean animal, or an unclean abominable thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings which pertain to Jehovah, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.
And Jehovah spoke to Moses saying, Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, He who offers the sacrifice of his peace offerings to Jehovah, shall bring his sacrifice to Jehovah of the sacrifice of his peace offerings. read more. His own hands shall bring in the fire offerings of Jehovah. He shall bring the fat with the breast, so that the breast may be waved for a wave-offering before Jehovah.
His own hands shall bring in the fire offerings of Jehovah. He shall bring the fat with the breast, so that the breast may be waved for a wave-offering before Jehovah. And the priest shall burn the fat on the altar. But the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'.
And the priest shall burn the fat on the altar. But the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'. And you shall give the right shoulder to the priest for a heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings.
And you shall give the right shoulder to the priest for a heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings. He among the sons of Aaron who offers the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part.
He among the sons of Aaron who offers the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part. For I have taken the breast of the wave offering and the heave shoulder from the sons of Israel, from the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons by a statute forever from among the sons of Israel.
For I have taken the breast of the wave offering and the heave shoulder from the sons of Israel, from the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons by a statute forever from among the sons of Israel.
For the life of the flesh is in the blood. And I have given it to you on the altar to make an atonement for your souls. For it is the blood that makes an atonement for the soul.
To the next day after the seventh sabbath you shall number fifty days. And you shall offer a new food offering to Jehovah. You shall bring out of your homes two wave loaves of two-tenth parts. They shall be of fine flour. They shall be baked with leaven, firstfruits to Jehovah.
You shall bring out of your homes two wave loaves of two-tenth parts. They shall be of fine flour. They shall be baked with leaven, firstfruits to Jehovah. And you shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bull, and two rams. They shall be for a burnt offering to Jehovah, with their food offering, and their drink offerings, a fire offering of sweet savor to Jehovah. read more. Then you shall sacrifice one he-goat for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings. And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits, a wave offering before Jehovah, with the two lambs. They shall be holy to Jehovah for the priest. And you shall proclaim on the same day that it may be a holy convocation to you. You shall do no work of labor. It shall be a statute forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtle-doves or two young pigeons to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering, and make an atonement for him, because he sinned by the dead, and shall make his head holy that same day. read more. And he shall set apart to Jehovah the days of his separation, and shall bring a lamb of the first year for a guilt offering. But the former days shall be lost, because his separation was defiled.
And Jehovah spoke to Moses saying, Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, When you have come into the land of your dwelling places, which I give to you, read more. and will make an offering by fire to Jehovah, a burnt offering or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or in a free-will offering, or in your solemn feasts, to make a sweet savor to Jehovah, from the herd or from the flock, then he who offers his offering to Jehovah shall bring a food offering of a tenth part of flour mixed with the fourth of a hin of oil. And the fourth of a hin of wine for a drink offering shall you prepare with the burnt offering, or sacrifice, for one lamb. Or for a ram, you shall prepare a food offering, two-tenth parts of flour mixed with the third of a hin of oil. And for a drink offering you shall offer the third of a hin of wine for a sweet savor to Jehovah. And when you prepare a bull, a burnt offering, or a sacrifice in performing a vow, or peace offerings to Jehovah, then he shall bring with the bull, a food offering of three-tenth parts of flour mixed with half a hin of oil. And you shall bring for a drink offering half a hin of wine, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to Jehovah. So it shall be done for one bull, or for one ram, or for a lamb, or a kid.
All the heave offerings of the holy things, which the sons of Israel offer to Jehovah, I have given you and your sons and your daughters with you, by a law forever. It is a covenant of salt forever before Jehovah to you and to your seed with you.
And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them up outside the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept for the congregation of the sons of Israel for a water of separation. It is a cleansing for sin.
And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes of the burnt heifer of cleansing for sin, and running water shall be put to it in a vessel.
and its drink offering shall be the fourth of a hin for the one lamb. Pour a drink offering of strong drink to Jehovah in the holy place.
And their drink offerings shall be half a hin of wine to a bull, and the third of a hin to a ram, and a fourth a hin to a lamb. This is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
But the priests were too few, so that they could not skin all the burnt offerings. And their brothers the Levites helped them until the work was ended, and until the priests had sanctified themselves. For the Levites were more upright of heart to make themselves pure than the priests.
And they set the altar on its bases, for fear was on them because of the people of those countries. And they offered burnt offerings on it to Jehovah, burnt offerings both morning and evening.
He will remember all your offerings, and accept your burnt sacrifice. Selah.
Then I said, Lo, I come, in the volume of the Book it is written of Me; I delight to do Your will, O My God; and Your Law is within My heart.
And you shall offer them before Jehovah, and the priests shall cast salt on them, and they shall offer them up for a burnt offering to Jehovah.
Yea, he magnified himself, even to the ruler of the host, and the daily sacrifice was taken away by him, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.
Then I heard a certain holy one speaking, and another holy one said to that one who spoke, Until when shall the vision last, concerning the daily sacrifice and the transgression that astounds, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled?
And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true. But you shall shut up the vision; for it shall be for many days.
And he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week. And in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease, and on a corner of the altar desolating abominations, even until the end. And that which was decreed shall be poured on the desolator.
For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.
I am the Good Shepherd, and I know those that are Mine, and I am known by those who are Mine. Even as the Father knows Me, I also know the Father. And I lay down My life for the sheep. read more. And I have other sheep who are not of this fold. I must also lead those, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, one Shepherd. Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life so that I might take it again.
Then when he had left, Jesus said, Now the Son of Man is glorified, and God is glorified in him.
I have glorified You upon the earth. I have finished the work which You have given Me to do.
Therefore as by one offense sentence came on all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of One the free gift came to all men to justification of life.
I beseech you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God, which is your reasonable service.
The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.
Yea, and if I am offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you all.
But I have all, and abound. I have been filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things which you sent, an odor of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable and well-pleasing to God.
Let your speech be always with grace, having been seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one.
By Him, then, let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips, confessing His name. But do not forget to do good and to share, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.
you also as living stones are built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
By this we have known the love of God, because He laid down His life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers.