Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over Hadadezer (2Sa 8:10).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1Ch 26:25).
(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in Judah (2Ch 17:8).
(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C. 896-884 (2Ki 1:17; 3:1). His first work was to reduce to subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2Ki 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory. The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory further, and returned to their own land.
Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought that war to a bloodless close (2Ki 6:23). But Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank into idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria (2Ki 6:24-33). By a remarkable providential interposition the city was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were put to flight (2Ki 7:6-15).
Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and obliged to return to Jezreel (2Ki 8:29; 9:14-15), and soon after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram (2Ki 9). Jehoram was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of ground at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died (2Ki 9:21-29).
(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. He reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of Judah, having been previously for some years associated with his father (2Ch 21:5,20; 2Ki 8:16). His wife was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful malady, and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (2Ki 8:16-24; 2Ch 21).
("exalted by Jehovah"), JEHORAM or JORAM.
1. Son of Ahab, king of Israel. Succeeded his brother Ahaziah who had no son, 896 B.C., and died 884 B.C. Jehoram, king of Judah, had two accessions recorded in Scripture, and an earlier one not recorded, but conjectured by Usher;
(1) probably when Jehoshaphat went from his kingdom to Ramoth Gilead battle in his 17th year (2Ki 3:1);
(2) when he retired from the administration, making his son joint king, in his 23rd year (2Ki 8:16 margin);
Thus, the accession of Jehoram king of Israel in Jehoshaphat's 18th year synchronized with
(1) the second year after the first accession (2Ki 1:17), and
(2) the fifth year before the second accession, of Jehoram king of Judah (2Ki 8:16).
For the last year of his reign he synchronized with Ahaziah, Joram's son, slain along with him by Jehu (2 Kings 9). There was a close alliance between Judah and Israel, begun by Ahab his father with Jehoshaphat and continued by himself. With Judah (whose territory Moab had invaded, 2 Chronicles 20, and so provoked Jehoshaphat) and Edom as allies, Jehoram warred against Mesha, who had since Ahaziah's reign (2Ki 1:1) withheld the yearly tribute due to Israel, "100,000 lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams" (Keil) (2 Kings 3; Isa 16:1). The allies would have perished for want of water in their route S. of the Dead Sea, then northwards through Edom and the rocky valley Ahsy which separates Edom from Moab, but for Elisha who had a regard for Jehoshaphat, and brought water to fill the wady Ahsy miraculously from God; the water was collected for use in (Jer 14:3) the ditches made by his direction. (See DIBON; ELISHA.)
Rain fell probably in the eastern mountains of Edom far away from Israel, so that they perceived neither the wind which precedes the rain nor the rain itself; and this at the time of the morning "meat offering" to mark the return of God's favor in connection with sacrifice and prayer to Him. The reddish earth of the ditches colored the water, gleaming in the rising sun, and seemed blood to Moab, who supposed it to indicate a desperate conflict between the three kings. Edom's late attempt at rebellion (2Ch 21:8) made the Moabites' supposition probable; and remembering how their own joint expedition against Judah with Ammon and Edom (20) had ended in mutual slaughter, they naturally imagined the same issue to the confederacy against themselves. After smiting the cities, telling the trees, stopping the wells, and marring the land, the allies pressed the king of Moab sore in his last stronghold Kir Haraseth, the citadel of Moab (Isa 15:1), now Kerak, on a steep chalk rock above the deep valley, wady Kerak, which runs westward into the Dead Sea.
Failing to break through the besiegers to the king of Edom, from whom he expected least resistance, he offered his firstborn son a burnt offering to Chemosh. (See CHEMOSH.) So there ensued "great wrath against Israel"; Israel's driving him to such an extremity brought on Israel some of the guilt of the human sacrifice offered. Their conscience and superstitious feelings were so roused (probably a divine sign visibly accompanying this feeling) that they gave up the siege and the subjugation of Moab. The Dibon stone records probably the victories of Mesha subsequent to this, though the allies' circuitous route S.E. of the Dead Sea, instead of directly E. across Jordan, may have resulted from Mesha's successes already in the latter quarter. Jehoram fell into Jeroboam's sin of worshipping Jehovah under the calf symbol, which every Israelite king regarded as a political necessity, but not into his father's and mother's Baal idolatry; nay, he removed Baal's statue (2Ki 3:2-3).
Jehoshaphat's influence produced a compromise on both sides, to the spiritual good of neither, as always happens in compromises between the world and the church. Baal worship outlived such half hearted religious efforts. How could it be otherwise, when Jezebel lived throughout his reign, as whole-hearted for false gods as her son was half hearted for the true God! (2Ki 9:30; 10:18 ff; 2Ki 3:13). However, Jehoram's removal of Baal's statue seems to have drawn Elisha to him, so that the prophet was able to offer the Shunammite woman to speak to the king in her behalf (2Ki 4:13). As Elisha spoke so sternly to him in 2Ki 3:14, the removal of the Baal statue may have been subsequent to, and the consequence of, Jehoram's witnessing the deliverance of himself and his two allies, wrought through Jehovah's prophet in chapter 3.
The king's want of faith, yet mixed with recognition of God's exclusive omnipotence, appears in his answer to the Syrian king's command that he should heal Naaman of his leprosy, "Am I God to kill and to make alive, that this man," etc. (2Ki 5:7; De 32:39); his unbelief ignored the existence of God's prophet in Israel. The miraculous cure deepened his respect for Elisha. The prophet again and again saved Jehoram by warning him of the position of the Syrian camp (2Ki 6:8-12; compare Lu 12:3). Blinding, and then leading the Syrian hosts sent to surround him in Dothan, into the midst of Samaria, he checked Jehoram who would have smitten them ("wouldest thou smite those whom thou hast taken captive with thy sword?" Surely not. Much less those taken not in open battle, but by a device, combined with mental blindness sent by God), and caused him instead to set bread and water, "great provision" (2Ki 6:22-23), before them, and then to send them home, the effect being that love melted the enemy's heart, and Syrian "bands" (i.e. flying bodies), reverencing God's power, for long ceased to harass Israel (Ro 12:20).
Abatement of the divine scourge, apparently, brought with it carnal security to Jehoram. Then followed a divinely sent regular war. Benhadad besieged Samaria; a terrible famine ensued. The tale of a mother who had slain her child for food, and complained of another mother having hidden hers contrary to agreement, roused Jehoram to rend his clothes; then appeared the hair sackcloth of mourning penitence "within" (mibaait), a bore sign without the real repentance of heart, as his threat of murdering Elisha proves, Ro 12:21. The prophet probably had advised holding out, and promised deliverance if they humbly sought Jehovah (Jon 3:6). Jehoram thought that by his sackcloth he had done his part; when God's help did not yet come, Jehoram vented his impatience on the prophet, as if Elisha's zeal for Jehovah against Baal was the cause of the calamity. (See ELISHA.)
Elisha, by deferring the entrance of the executioner, gave time for Jehoram's better feelings to work. He stayed the execution in person, then complained despairingly of the evil as "from Jehovah," as if it were vain to "wait still further for Jehovah." Elisha's prophecy of immediate plenty, and its fulfillment to the letter (2 Kings 7), restored the friendly relations between Jehoram and him (2Ki 8:4). Jehoram's conversation with Gehazi about Elisha's great works and his raising the dead lad, and the Shunammite woman's return at that very time, occurred probably while the prophet was at Damascus prophesying to Hazael his coming kingship (2 Kings 8). Similarly Herod was curious about our Lord's miracles, and heard John Baptist gladly (Lu 9:9; 23:8; Mr 6:14,20). A fascination draws bad men, in spite of themselves, toward God's servants, though it be only to hear their own condemnation. The revolution in Syria seemed an opportunity to effect his father's project, to recover Ramoth Gilead.
Jehoram accordingly, in concert with Ahaziah of Judah, his nephew, seized it. Jehoram was wounded, and returned to Jezreel to be healed. Jehu his captain was left at Ramoth Gilead to continue the war with Hazael. But Jehu, with characteristic haste, immediately after Elisha had anointed him, set out for Jezreel and with an arrow slew Jehoram and threw his body on the very plot of ground which by falsehood and murder Ahab had dispossessed Naboth of, fulfilling Elijah's prophecy (1Ki 21:19,22). Lord A. C. Hervey considers the seven years' famine (2Ki 8:1) foretold to the Shunammite to be the same as that in 2Ki
JEHORAM, in the shorter form JORAM, is the name of two kings in the OT.
1. Jehoram of Israel was a son of Ahab (2Ki 3:1), and came to the throne after the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah. The first thing that claimed his attention was the revolt of Moab. This he endeavoured to suppress, and with the aid of Jehoshaphat of Judah he obtained some successes. But at the crisis of the conflict the king of Moab sacrificed his son to his god Chemosh. The result was that the invading army was discouraged, and the allies retreated without having accomplished their purpose (2Ki 3:4 ff.). It is probable that the Moabites assumed the offensive, and took the Israelite cities of whose capture Mesha boasts. The prophet Elisha was active during the reign of Jehoram, and it is probable that the siege of Samaria, of which we have so graphic an account in 2Ki 6; 7, also belongs to this period. Jehoram engaged in the siege of Ramoth-gilead, and was wounded there. The sequel in the revolt of Jehu is well known. See Jehu.
2. Jehoram of Judah, son of Jehoshaphat, came to the throne during the reign of the other Jehoram in Israel. He was married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. All that the history tells us is that he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and that Edom revolted successfully from Judah in his time. In endeavouring to subdue this revolt Jehoram was in great danger, but with a few of his men he cut his way through the troops that surrounded him (2Ki 8:16-24).
3. A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law (2Ch 17:8).
H. P. Smith.
(whom Jehovah has exalted).
1. Son of Ahab king of Israel, who succeeded his brother Ahaziah B.C. 896, and died B.C. 884. The alliance between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, commenced by his father and Jehoshaphat, was very close throughout his reign. We first find him associated with Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom in a war against the Moabites. The three armies were in the utmost danger of perishing for want of water. The piety of Jehoshaphat suggested an inquiry of Jehovah, thorough Elisha. After reproving Jehoram, Elisha, for Jehoshaphat's sake, inquired of Jehovah, and received the promise of an abundant supply of water, and of a great victory over the Moabites; a promise which was immediately fulfilled. The allies pursued them with great slaughter into their own land, which they utterly ravaged and destroyed most of its cities. Kirharaseth alone remained, the there the king of Moab made his last stand. An attempt to break through the besieging army having failed, he resorted to the desperate expedient of offering up his eldest son, as a burnt offering, upon the wall of the city, in the sight of the enemy. Upon this the Israelites retired and returned to their own land.
... A little later, when war broke out between Syria and Israel, we find Elisha befriending Jehoram; but when the terrible famine in Samaria arose, the king immediately attributed the evil to Elisha, and determined to take away his life. The providential interposition by which both Elisha's life was saved the city delivered is narrated
... and Jehoram appears to have returned to friendly feeling toward Elisha.
It was soon after these vents that the revolution in Syria predicted by Elisha took place, giving Jehoram a good opportunity of recovering Ramoth-gilead from the Syrians. he accordingly made an alliance with his nephew Ahaziah, who had just succeeded Joram on the throne of Judah, and the two kings proceeded to occupy Ramoth-gilead by force. The expedition was an unfortunate one. Jehoram was wounded in battle, and obliged to return to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds.
jehu and the army under his command revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram,
... and hastily marching to Jezreel, surprised Jehoram, wounded and defenseless as he was. Jehoram, going out to meet him, fell pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the very plot of ground which Ahab had wrested from Naboth the Jezreelite; thus fulfilling to the letter the prophecy of Elijah.
With the life of Jehoram ended the dynasty of Omri.
2. Eldest son of Jehoshaphat, succeeded his father on the throne of Judah at the age of 32, and reigned eight years, from B.C. 893-2 to 885-4. As soon as he was fixed on the throne, he put his six brothers to death, with many of the chief nobles of the land. He then, probably at the instance of his wife Athaliah the daughter of Ahab, proceeded to establish the worship of Baal. A prophetic writing from the aged prophet Elijah,
failed to produce any good effect upon him. The remainder of his reign was a series of calamities. First the Edomites, who had been tributary to Jehoshaphat, revolted from his dominion and established their permanent independence. Next Libnah,
rebelled against him. Then followed invasion by armed bands of Philistines and of Arabians, who stormed the king's palace, put his wives and all his children, except his youngest son Ahaziah, to death,
or carried them into captivity, and plundered all his treasures. he died of a terrible disease.