The second and greatest of the kings of Israel; the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; he belonged to the tribe of Judah. The details of his life are gathered from 1Sa 16:3
"I'll set your borders from the Reed Sea to the Sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the River, bringing the inhabitants of the land under your control, and you are to drive them out ahead of you. You are not to make a covenant with them or with their gods. read more. They are not to live in your land. Otherwise they will cause you to sin against me. If you worship their gods, it will become a snare for you."
then the LORD will dispossess all these nations before you and you'll dispossess nations that are even greater and stronger than you. Every place upon which the soles of your feet tread will be yours as boundaries from the desert to Lebanon and from the River (that is, from the Euphrates) to the Mediterranean Sea. read more. No one will be able to stand against you. The LORD your God will instill terror and fear of you throughout the entire land wherever you go, just as he promised you.
"Go in peace," Eli answered. "May the God of Israel grant the request you have asked of him." She said, "Let your servant find favor in your eyes." Then she went on her way and ate, and her face was no longer sad. read more. They got up early the next morning and worshipped in the LORD's presence, and then they returned and came to their house at Ramah. Elkanah had marital relations with his wife Hannah, and the LORD remembered her. By the time of the next year's sacrifice, Hannah had become pregnant and had borne a son. She named him Samuel because she said, "I asked the LORD for him." Then Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the yearly sacrifice to the LORD and pay his vow. Hannah did not go up because she had told her husband, "As soon as the child is weaned, I'll take him to appear in the LORD's presence and remain there forever." "Do what you want," Elkanah told her. "Stay until you have weaned him, only may the LORD bring about what you've said." So Hannah stayed and nursed her son until she had weaned him. Then, when she had weaned him, she brought him up with her to Shiloh, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine. She brought him to the house of the LORD at Shiloh, and the boy was young. They slaughtered the bull and brought the boy to Eli. Hannah said, "Sir, as surely as you are alive, I'm the woman who stood before you here praying to the LORD. I prayed for this boy, and the LORD granted me the request I asked of him.
he had a son named Saul, who was a choice and handsome young man. There was no one among the Israelis as handsome as he, and he was a head taller than any of the other people.
The LORD told Samuel, "How long will you grieve over Saul, since I've rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go. I'm sending you to Jesse from Bethlehem because I've chosen for myself one of his sons as king." Samuel said, "How can I go? Saul will hear about this and kill me!" read more. The LORD said, "Take a heifer with you and say, "I've come to offer a sacrifice to the LORD.' You are to invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I'll show you what you are to do. You are to anoint for me the one I tell you."
The LORD said, "Take a heifer with you and say, "I've come to offer a sacrifice to the LORD.' You are to invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I'll show you what you are to do. You are to anoint for me the one I tell you." Samuel did what the LORD said and went to Bethlehem. The elders of the town came out to meet him trembling, and said, "May your coming be in peace." read more. He said, "Peace, I've come to sacrifice to the LORD. Consecrate yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice." Samuel consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. When they arrived, Samuel saw Eliab, and said, "Surely he's the LORD's anointed." The LORD told Samuel, "Don't look at his appearance or his height, for I've rejected him. Truly, God does not see what man sees, for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD sees the heart." Then Jesse summoned Abinadab and brought him before Samuel, and he said, "Neither has the LORD chosen this one." Then Jesse brought Shammah, and he said, "Neither has the LORD chosen this one." Jesse brought seven of his sons before Samuel, and Samuel told Jesse, "The LORD has not chosen these." Then Samuel told Jesse, "Are these all the young men?" He said, "There yet remains the youngest one, and right now he's tending the sheep." Samuel told Jesse, "Send someone to get him, for we won't do anything else until he arrives here." So he sent and brought him. He had a dark, healthy complexion, with beautiful eyes, and he was handsome. The LORD said, "Get up and anoint him, for this is the one." Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed David in the presence of his brothers, and the Spirit of the LORD came on David from that day forward. Then Samuel got up and went to Ramah. The Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him. Saul's servants told him, "Look, an evil spirit from God is troubling you. Let our lord order his servants who attend you to look for a man who is skilled in playing the lyre. And then when an evil spirit from God comes on you, he will play and you will be better." Saul told his servants, "Find a man for me who can play well and bring him to me." One of the young men answered: "Look, I've seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is skilled in playing. The man is a valiant soldier, gifted in speech, and handsome. And the LORD is with him." So Saul sent messengers to Jesse and said, "Send me your son David, who is with the sheep." Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, a container of wine, and one kid, and sent them to Saul along with his son David. David went to Saul and began to serve him. Saul loved him very much, and he became his armor bearer. Saul sent a messenger to Jesse to tell him, "Allow David to serve me, because I'm pleased with him." Whenever an evil spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the lyre and play it. Relief would come to Saul and he would be better, because the evil spirit would leave him.
David was the son of that Ephrathite man named Jesse from Bethlehem in Judah. He had eight sons; at the time when Saul was king he was old, having lived to an advanced age. The three oldest sons of Jesse followed Saul into battle. The names of his three sons who went to the battle were his firstborn Eliab, Abinadab, his second son, and Shammah, the third. read more. David was the youngest, while the three oldest had followed Saul. And David would go back and forth from Saul to tend his father's sheep in Bethlehem. For 40 days the Philistine would come forward, morning and evening, to take his position. Jesse told his son David, "Take this ephah of roasted grain to your brothers, along with these ten loaves of bread, and quickly take them to your brothers in the camp. Take these ten pieces of cheese to the commander of the unit, check on the well-being of your brothers, and bring something back from them. Saul, your brothers, and all the men of Israel are in the valley of Elah fighting with the Philistines." David got up early in the morning, left the sheep with a keeper, took the supplies, and went as Jesse had directed him. He arrived at the encampment as the army was going out to the battle line, shouting the battle cry. Israel and the Philistines moved into position for battle, battle line facing battle line. David left the supplies he had with him in the care of the supply keeper and ran to the battle line. When he arrived there, he asked his brothers about their well-being. As he was speaking with them, the Philistine champion named Goliath from Gath came up from the Philistine battle lines and spoke his usual words, as David listened. When all the Israelis saw the man, they fled from him and were very frightened. "Did all of you see this man coming up?" one Israeli asked. "He comes up to defy Israel, and the king will richly reward the man who kills him. He will give his daughter to him and will make his father's house tax free in Israel." David asked the men who were standing by him, "What will be done for the man who kills this Philistine and takes away the reproach from Israel? Indeed, who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?" The people also told him the same thing, saying, "This is what will be done for the man who kills him." Eliab his oldest brother heard him talking to the men. Eliab was angry with David and said, "Why did you come down here? And who did you leave those few sheep with in the wilderness? I know your insolence and wicked intentions. You came down just to see the battle!" "What have I done now?" David asked. "It was just a question, wasn't it?" Then he turned from him toward another person and asked the same thing. The people replied to him the same way as the first one had. When the words that David had spoken were heard, they were reported to Saul, and he sent for him.
David told Saul, "Your servant has been a shepherd for his father. When a lion or bear came and took a lamb from the flock, I would go out after it, strike it down, and rescue the lamb from its mouth. Then when it rose up against me, I would grab it by its fur, strike it down, and kill it.
When Saul saw David going out to meet the Philistine, he asked Abner, the commander of the army, "Whose son is this young man, Abner?" Abner said, "As surely as you live, your majesty, I don't know." The king replied, "Go find out whose son the young man is." read more. When David returned from striking down the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him to Saul with the Philistine's head in his hand. Saul told him, "Whose son are you, young man?" David said, "The son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem."
The next day, while David was playing the lyre as he had before, the evil spirit from the LORD attacked Saul, and he began to rave inside the house with a spear in his hand. Saul hurled it, thinking, "I'll pin David to the wall." But David escaped from him twice.
Saul said, "This is what you are to tell David, "The king desires no bride price except 100 Philistine foreskins to take vengeance on the king's enemies.'" Now Saul thought he would cause David to die at the hand of the Philistines. When his officials delivered this message to David, David decided it would be a good thing to become the king's son-in-law. Before the time was up,
Saul told his son Jonathan and all his officials to kill David, but Saul's son Jonathan was very fond of David. So Jonathan told David, "My father Saul is trying to kill you. In the morning be careful and stay hidden in a secret place. read more. I'll go out and stand by my father in the field where you are. I'll speak to my father about you. If I find out what he intends to do, I'll tell you." Jonathan spoke to his father Saul favorably about David. "The king shouldn't wrong his servant David because he has not wronged you and because what he has done has been very beneficial for you. He risked his life and struck down the Philistine, and the LORD brought about a spectacular deliverance for all Israel. You saw that and rejoiced, so why would you do wrong and shed innocent blood by killing David without cause?" Saul listened to Jonathan, and swore by the life of the LORD that David would not be killed. Jonathan summoned David and told him all this. Then Jonathan brought David to Saul, and David served him as before.
People from Ziph came up to Saul at Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding with us in the strongholds in Horesh and on the hill of Hachilah south of Jeshimon, isn't he?
When Saul returned from pursuing the Philistines, he was told, "Look, David is in the wilderness of En-gedi."
People from Ziph came to Saul in Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding on the hill of Hachilah which is across from Jeshimon, isn't he?"
David sent out spies and found out for certain that Saul had arrived.
Look, just as your life was valuable in my eyes today, so may my life be valuable in the LORD's eyes, and may he deliver me from all trouble." Saul told David, "Blessed are you, my son David. In whatever you do you will surely succeed." So David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place.
David lived in Philistine territory for a year and four months.
David told Achish, "What have I done, and what have you found in your servant from the time I came before you until this very moment, that I shouldn't go out and fight the enemies of your majesty?"
David came to Ziklag, and he sent some of the spoil to the elders of Judah, and to his friends, telling them, "Look, this is a gift for you from the spoil of the enemies of the LORD in Bethel, Ramoth-negev, Jattir, read more. Aroer, Siphmoth, Eshtemoa, Rachal, in the Jerahmeelite towns, in the Kenite towns, in Hormah, Bor-ashan, Athach, Hebron, and for all those places where David and his men had frequented."
How have the valiant fallen in the tumult of battle! Jonathan lies slain on your high places. I am in distress for you, my brother Jonathan. You have been most kind to me. Your love for me was extraordinary beyond love from women. read more. How the valiant have fallen! How the weapons of war are destroyed!"
After this, the army of Judah arrived, and they anointed David king over the house of Judah. There they informed David, "The men of Jabesh-gilead buried Saul."
After this, a state of protracted war existed between Saul's dynasty and David's dynasty, and the dynasty of David continued to grow and become strong while the dynasty of Saul continued to grow weaker.
Even so, David captured the stronghold of Zion, which is now known as the City of David.
Later, King Hiram of Tyre sent a delegation to David, accompanied by cedar logs, carpenters, and stone masons. They built a palace for David.
When the Philistines eventually learned that Israel had anointed David to be king over Israel, they marched out in search of him. But David heard about it and retreated to his stronghold. Meanwhile, the Philistines arrived and encamped in the Rephaim Valley, read more. so David asked the LORD, "Am I to go attack the Philistines? Will you give me victory over them?" "Go get them," the LORD replied to David, "because I'm going to put the Philistines right into your hand!" So David went to Baal-perazim and defeated them there. He called the place Baal-perazim, because he said, "Like a bursting flood, the LORD has jumped out in front of me to fight my enemies." The Philistines abandoned their idols there, and David and his army carried them off. Later, the Philistines once again marched out and encamped in the Rephaim Valley. When David asked the LORD about it, he said, "Don't attack them directly. Instead, go around to the rear and attack them opposite those balsam trees. When you hear the sound of marching coming from the tops of the balsam trees, then be sure to act quickly, since the LORD will have gone out ahead of you to cut down the Philistine army." So David did exactly what the LORD ordered him to do, and he struck down the Philistines from Geba to Gezer.
After this, David gathered together again 30,000 men from all of the choicest men of Israel.
he told the prophet Nathan, "Look now, I'm living in a cedar palace, but the Ark of God resides behind a tent curtain."
when I had commanded judges to administer my people Israel. I'll also grant you relief from all your enemies."'
Then King David went in to the presence of the LORD, sat down, and said: "Who am I, Lord GOD, and what is my family, that you have brought me to this? And this is still a small thing to you, Lord GOD you also have spoken about the future of your servant's house, and this is the charter for mankind, O Lord GOD! read more. "What more can David say to you, and you surely know your servant, Lord GOD. For the sake of your word and consistent with your desire, you have done all of these great things, informing your servant. And therefore you are great, Lord GOD, there is no one like you, there is no God except for you, just as we've heard with our own ears. "And who is like your people, like Israel, the one nation on earth that God went out to redeem as a people for himself, to make a name for himself, and to carry out for them great and awe-inspiring accomplishments, driving out nations and their gods in front of your people, whom you redeemed to yourself from Egypt? You have prepared your people Israel to be your very own people for ever, and you, LORD, have become their God! "And now, LORD God, let what you have spoken concerning your servant and his household be done and let it be done just as you've promised. May your name be made great forever with the result that it is said that the LORD of the Heavenly Armies is God over Israel, and that the household of your servant David may be established before you. For you, LORD of the Heavenly Armies, the God of Israel, have revealed this to your servant, telling him, "I will build a dynasty for you,' so that your servant has found fortitude to pray this prayer to you. "Now therefore, Lord GOD, you are God, and your words are true, and you have spoken to your servant these good things. So may it please you to bless the household of your servant, so that it might remain forever in your presence, because you, Lord GOD, have spoken, and from your blessing may the household of your servant be blessed forever."
David also conquered Moab, then measured them with a cord, making them lie down on the ground. He executed everyone measured out in each two lengths' measurement of the cord, but spared the ones measured out by every third length. Then the Moabites were placed under servitude to David, and made to pay tribute. David also attacked King Hadadezer, Rehob's son from Zobah, when he was attempting to restore his hegemony over the Euphrates River. read more. David captured 1,000 of his chariots, 1,700 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. David hamstrung all the chariot horses except for enough to supply 100 chariots. When Arameans came from Damascus to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, David killed 22,000 of them. David erected garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, placing the Arameans under servitude to him, and they paid tribute to him. David also confiscated the gold shields that belonged to Hadadezer's officers and took them to Jerusalem. He also confiscated a vast quantity of bronze from Betah and Berothai, cities under Hadadezer's control. When King Tou of Hamath learned that David had conquered the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, Tou sent his son Joram to King David to greet him and congratulate him on his victory over Hadadezer, because he had been at war with Tou. Joram brought articles of silver, gold, and bronze with him, and King David dedicated them to the LORD, along with the silver and gold that had been dedicated from all the nations that he had conquered, including from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, Amalek, and spoil from King Hadadezer, Rehob's son from Zobah. David made a name for himself when he returned from killing 18,000 Edomites in the Salt Valley. He erected garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subservient to David, while the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went.
Sometime later, the Ammonite king died and his son Hanun succeeded him as king,
One spring day, during the time of year when kings go off to war, David sent out Joab, along with his personal staff and all of Israel's army. They utterly destroyed the Ammonites and then attacked Rabbah while David remained in Jerusalem. Late one afternoon about dusk, David got up from his couch and was walking around on the roof of the royal palace. From there he watched a woman taking a bath, and she was very beautiful to look at.
and sent a message written by Nathan the prophet to call his name Jedidiah, for the Lord's sake. Meanwhile, Joab attacked the Ammonite city of Rabbah and captured its stronghold. read more. Then Joab sent messengers to David to tell him, "I just attacked Rabbah and captured its municipal water supply, so call out the rest of the army, attack the city, and capture it. Otherwise, I'll take the city myself and name it after me." So David mustered his entire army and marched on Rabbah, attacked it, and captured it. He confiscated the crown of their king from his head it weighed one talent in gold and was set with precious stones and it was placed on David's head. He confiscated a great amount of war booty that had been plundered from the city, brought back the people who had lived in it, placing them under conscripted labor with saws, iron picks, and axes. He did this to every Ammonite city, and then David and his entire army returned to Jerusalem.
Sometime later, Absalom acquired a chariot equipped with horses and recruited 50 men to accompany him. Then he would get up early, stand near the passageway to the palace gate, and when anyone arrived to file a legal complaint for a hearing before the king, Absalom would call to him and ask, "You're from what city?" If he replied, "Your servant is from one of Israel's tribes," read more. Absalom would respond, "Look, your claims are valid and defensible, but nobody will listen to you on behalf of the king. Who will appoint me to be a judge in the land? When anyone arrived to file a legal complaint or other cause, he could approach me for justice and I would settle it!" Furthermore, if a man approached him to bow down in front of him, he would put out his hand, grab him, and embrace him. By doing all of this to anyone who came to the king for a hearing, Absalom stole the loyalty of the men of Israel.
Meanwhile, when Ahithophel observed that his counsel was not being acted upon, he saddled his donkey, got up, and left for his hometown. Leaving behind a set of orders for his household, he hanged himself. After his death he was buried in his father's tomb.
"No matter what, I'm running," Ahimaaz replied. So Joab told Ahimaaz, "Run!" And Ahimaaz ran, taking the Jordan Valley road, passing the Ethiopian. Meanwhile, David was sitting between the inner and outer gates of the city. The watchman was up on the roof of the gateway near the walls, looking around, and there was a man running by himself! read more. So the watchman called out his news to the king. The king responded, "If he's alone, he's bringing some news to report." As the man continued to draw near and approach the palace, the watchman observed another man running. So he called out to the gatekeeper, "There's another man running by himself!" The king replied, "He's also bringing some news to report!" Then the watchman observed, "It looks to me that the runner out in front is running like Zadok's son Ahimaaz!" The king replied, "This is a good man bearing good news!" "Everything's fine!" Ahimaaz announced to the king. He bowed low with his face to the ground before the king and said, "Praise be to the LORD your God! He has handed over the men who rebelled against your majesty the king." "Are things fine with respect to the young man Absalom?" the king asked. Ahimaaz answered, "I saw a lot of confusion about the time Joab was getting ready to send the king's courier and me, your servant, but I'm not sure what was going on." The king replied, "Stand here at attention and wait." So he stepped to the side and stood there waiting. Just then the Ethiopian arrived. He reported, "Good news, your majesty the king! The LORD has delivered you from the control of everyone who rebelled against you!" The king asked the Ethiopian, "Is the young man safe?" The Ethiopian answered, "May the enemies of your majesty the king including everyone who rebels and tries to harm you become like that young man"." Deeply shaken, the king went up to the chamber overlooking the city gate, weeping bitterly and crying out as he went along, "My son Absalom! My son! My son Absalom! I wish I had died instead of you, Absalom my son, my son!"
Afterwards, war broke out between the Philistines and Israel, so David went down to fight the Philistines. David became weary, and Ishbi-benob, who had been fathered by giants, said he intended to kill David. (His bronze spearhead weighed 300 shekels, and he carried state-of-the-art weaponry.) read more. But Zeruiah's son Abishai came to David's aid, attacked the Philistine, and killed him. After this, David's army told him, "You're not going out anymore with us to battle, so Israel's beacon won't be extinguished!" Sometime later after this incident, there was another battle with the Philistines at Gob. Sibbecai the Hushathite killed Saph, who had been fathered by giants. In yet another battle at Gob, Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite's son Elhanan killed Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear resembled that of a weaver's beam. Later on, there was another battle at Gath, where there was a very tall man with six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot 24 in number who had also been fathered by giants. When he defied Israel, David's brother Shimeah's son Jonathan killed him. These four giants, who had been fathered by a giant in Gath, were killed at the hands of David and his servants.
David had reigned over Israel for 40 years. He reigned in Hebron for seven years and in Jerusalem for 33 years.
anoint Nimshi's son Jehu as king over Israel, and anoint Shaphat's son Elisha from Abel-meholah as a prophet to replace you.
including details regarding his reign, his power, the circumstances that attended his life, Israel, and all of the kingdoms of the countries that surrounded him.