The father of Gideon, of the family of Abiezer, in Manasseh. For a long time he was a worshipper of Baal; but when his son boldly attacked idolatry, he also came out on the Lord's side, Jg 6:11,25-32.
The eighth king of Judah, B. C. 878-838. He was the only son of Ahaziah who was not slain by the usurping Athaliah, his grandmother. Being rescued by Jehoshebah his aunt, and secluded six years in the temple, he was raised to the throne when seven years of age through the faithful care of Jehoiada; and while this venerable man survived, Joash served God and prospered. Idols were banished, and the temple was repaired. But afterwards he followed less wholesome counsels; idolatry revived; and when Zechariah the high priest rebuked the guilty people, the ungrateful king caused this servant of God, the son of his benefactor, to be stoned to death. Misfortunes soon multiplied on his head; he was repeatedly humbled by the Syrians, and gave them the temple treasures as a ransom; a loathsome disease imbittered his life, which was very soon cut short by a conspiracy of his servants, and he was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, 2Ki 11-12; 2Ch 23-24. The prophet Joel was contemporary with him.
The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, B. C. 840-825. There was much in his conduct to commend. He had a great regard for the prophet Elisha, and visited him on his deathbed, where by a divine oracle he was assured of three victories over the Syrians. He was also victorious when forced to give battle to Amaziah king of Judah, and was one of the best of the kings of Israel. The worship of the golden calf, however, still continued during his reign, 2Ki 13:9-25; 14:1-8; 2Ch 25.
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1Ch 12:3).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1Ki 22:26).
(6.) 1Ch 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (1Ch 27:28).
1. Gideon's father, an Abiezrite of wealth. (See GIDEON.) During the Midianite oppression he conformed to the popular idolatry, and had an altar to Baal and a "grove," i.e. Asherah, in his own ground. But on his son's destroying both Joash defended his son with a sarcastic sneer at Baal's impotence to "plead for himself" (Jg 6:11-25,29'>29-31; 7:14; 8:13,29,32).
2. 1Ch 4:22. Ruled anciently in Moab.
3. 1Ch 7:8.
4. 1Ch 12:1-3,21. One of David's "helpers in the battle ... against the band (giduwd, the same word as in Samuel is used of the Amalekite spoiling 'troop' or company) of the rovers," i.e. the Amalekites who spoiled Ziklag in David's absence (1Sa 30:1-10,15).
5. 1Ch 27:28.
7. The only son of Ahaziah king of Judah that escaped Athaliah's murderous hand, and the only surviving descendant of Solomon, for his grandfather Jehoram had killed all his brethren (2Ch 21:4,17; 22:1,8-11), and all his own sons except Jehoahaz or Ahaziah the Arabians had slain; and on Ahaziah's destruction by Jehu Athaliah his mother (the instigator of sin becoming the instrument of punishment, compare 2Ch 22:3 with 2Ch 22:10) destroyed all the seed royal of Judah except Joash, hidden by his aunt Jehoshabeath, Ahaziah's sister, Jehoiada's wife. (See ATHALIAH.) After remaining six years hidden in the temple, Jehoiada by a well contrived revolution raised him to the throne. (See JEHOIADA.) For 23 years Joash prospered, so long as he adhered to the "covenant between the Lord and the king and the people, that they should be the Lord's people."
Baal's house, altars, and images were first of all destroyed by the people under Jehoiada; and Mattan, Baal's priest, was slain (2Ch 23:17; 2Ki 11:17-19), The high places alone were spared, the people still sacrificing and burning incense on them. But after his faithful counselor Jehoiada was dead the princes with flattering "obeisance" (compare Pr 29:5) persuaded the weak king to forsake Jehovah for Asheerah and idols. Wrath from God visited Judah for their trespass; then Zechariah, Jehoiada's son, standing in the inner higher court, "above the people" in the outer court, denounced their apostasy and declared God's consequent withdrawal of blessing (2Ch 24:20; compare 2Ch 12:5; 15:2).
They stoned the prophet "at the king's commandment in the court of Jehovah's house," "between the temple and the altar" (Mt 23:35); contrast Jehoiada's reverent care not to slay Athaliah there (2Ch 23:14). Joash slew other "sons" of Jehoiada also (2Ch 24:25). Zechariah left his cause in the Lord's hands, "the Lord look upon it and require it." So Hazael, as executioner of God's judgment, with a small Syrian army came to Judah and Jerusalem, and in battle destroyed all the princes (a just retribution on the instigators of the apostasy, 2Ch 24:23). Joash bought his withdrawal only at the cost of all his own and the temple treasures (2Ki 12:17-18).
Severely wounded and sick, in his helpless state he was slain on his bed in the house of Millo by two conspirators, Zabad or Jozachar, son of an Ammonitess, and Jehozabad, son of a Moabitess; from the nations whose idols he adopted came also God's punishers of his idolatry. His body at death was excluded from the royal sepulchres, to which good Jehoiada for his special goodness had been admitted. His reign lasted 40 years (878-838 B.C.). Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah are the three omitted in Matthew's genealogy of Jesus Christ.
8. Jehoahaz' son and successor as king of Israel (840-825 B.C.). For two years contemporary of Joash of Judah (2Ki 14:1; compare 2Ki 12:1; 13:10). God, in pity to Israel's extreme oppression by Hazael and the Syrians, remembered "His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," and by Elisha on his deathbed promised deliverance through Joash. The king had lamented the prophet's near decease as the loss of "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof," using the same language as Elisha had used of Elijah. By Elisha's direction Joash put his hand on a bow, Elisha put his hands on the king's hands (for God must bless our handiwork, else we labour in vain: compare Ge 49:24). Then Joash shot eastward and Elisha promised that Joash "should smite the Syrians in Aphek until he consumed them." Then by Elisha's direction Joash smote on the ground with arrows.
Smiting only thrice he was reproved by the prophet: "thou shouldest have smitten five or six times, then hadst thou smitten Syria until thou hadst consumed them, whereas now thou shalt smite Syria but thrice." So Joash took again out of the hands of Hazael's successor, Benhadad, Israel's cities and beat him thrice. Joash overcame at Bethshemesh, and took Amaziah, who challenged him because of the depredations of Israelite mercenaries whom Amaziah had sent away (2 Chronicles 25) and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the Ephraim gate (or that of Benjamin leading northward) to the N.W. corner gate, 400 cubits, (the N. side being Jerusalem's only accessible side,) and carried away the gold and silver found under Obed Edom's charge in the temple and in the palace. (See AMAZIAH; JERUSALEM.) Joash after his return to Samaria died in the 15th year of Amaziah's reign, and was buried in the sepulchres of the kings of Israel. Jeroboam II was his successor.
1. See Jehoash. 2. The father of Gideon (Jg 6:11 etc.). 3. A son of Ahab (1Ki 22:26). 4. A son of Shelah (1Ch 4:22). 5. A Benjamite (1Ch 12:3). 6. A son of Becher (1Ch 7:8). 7. A servant of David (1Ch 27:28).
1. Son of Ahaziah king of Judah. When his grandmother Athaliah attempted to cut off all the seed royal, Joash, then an infant, was hidden and preserved by his aunt, Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoiada the high priest. When he was about seven years old, Jehoiada succeeded in placing him, as the preserved seed of David, on the throne, and putting Athaliah to death. Thus, at that time, did the Lord secure the sure mercies centred in the house of David. He reigned forty years, from B.C. 878 to 839.
During the life of Jehoiada, Joash did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and with zeal caused the temple to be repaired. But on the death of the high priest, the princes of Judah and the king turned to idolatry. God sent them prophets, but they would not hear. Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, attempted to call them back to the worship of God, but by command of the king he was stoned to death in the court of the temple. God sent the Syrians to punish them: a small company of whom overcame a very great host of Judah, the princes were destroyed, and Joash gave all the treasures of the temple and of the king's house to the Syrians. Joash was now greatly diseased; and his servants conspired against him and slew him. He is very frequently called JEHOASH. 2Ki 11:2,21; 12:1-20; 13:1,10; 2Ch 22:11; 24:1-26; 25/23'>25:23,25.
2. Son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel: he reigned sixteen years: B.C. 841 to 825. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, even as Jeroboam; but when Elisha was dying Joash visited him, and wept over him, uttering the same words which Elisha had uttered as he beheld Elijah taken to heaven. Joash had the sense that the power which translated Elijah had been with Elisha, who was now departing. Elisha then prophesied that he should smite Syria. He told the king to smite upon the ground with arrows, and he smote three times. Elisha said that if he had smitten more times he would have consumed Syria; but now he should defeat them only three times. This was fulfilled, Joash smote them three times and recovered the cities of Israel that the king of Syria had taken. After this Amaziah king of Judah asked Joash to let them 'look one another in the face.' Joash in a parable called Judah a thistle, and himself a cedar, and advised Amaziah to stay at home; but he would not, and Judah was smitten. Joash went to Jerusalem, brake down the wall of it, and took away all the treasures of the temple and of the king's house, and returned with hostages to Samaria. Thus the two kingdoms punished each other. 2Ki 13:9-25; 14:1-27; 2Ch 25:17-25; Ho 1:1; Am 1:1. Called also JEHOASH.
5. Descendant of Shelah, a son of Judah. 1Ch 4:22.
6. Son of Becher, a son of Benjamin. 1Ch 7:8.
7. Son of Shemaah: he resorted to David at Ziklag. 1Ch 12:3.
8. One who had the care of the stores of oil in the time of David. 1Ch 27:28.
(to whom Jehovah hastens, i.e. to help), contracted from JEHOASH.
1. Son of Ahaziah king of Judah (B.C. 884), and the only one of his children who escaped the murderous hand of Athaliah. After his father's sister Jehoshabeath, the wife of Jehoiada the high priest, had stolen him from among the king's sons, he was hidden for six years in the chambers of the temple. In the seventh year of his age and of his concealment, a successful revolution, conducted by Jehoiada, placed him on the throne of his ancestors, and freed the country from the tyranny and idolatries of Athaliah. For at least twenty-three years, while Jehoiada lived, his reign was very prosperous; but after the death of Jehoiada, Joash fell into the hands of bad advisers, at whose suggestion he revived the worship of Baal and Ashtaroth. When he was rebuked for this by Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada, Joash caused him to be stoned to death in the very court of the Lord's house.
That very year Hazael king of Syria came up against Jerusalem, and carried off a vast booty as the price of his departure. Joash had scarcely escaped this danger when he fell into another and fatal one. Two of his servants conspired against him and slew him in his bed and in the fortress of Millo. Joash's reign lasted forty years, from 878 to 838 B.C.
2. Son and successor of Jehoahaz on the throne of Israel from B.C. 840 to 825, and for two full years a contemporary sovereign with the preceding.
comp. with 2Kin 12:1; 13:10 When he succeeded to the crown the kingdom was in a deplorable state from the devastations of Hazael and Ben-hadad, kings of Syria. On occasion of a friendly visit paid by Joash to Elisha on his death-bed, the prophet promised him deliverance from the Syrian yoke in Aphek,
He then bade him smite upon the ground, and the king smote thrice and then stayed. The prophet rebuked him for staying, and limited to three his victories over Syria. Accordingly Joash did defeat Ben-hadad three times on the field of battle, and recovered from him the cities which Hazael had taken from Jehoahaz. The other great military event of Joash's reign was the successful war with Amaziah king of Judah. He died in the fifteenth year of Amaziah king of Judah.
3. The father of Gideon, and a wealthy man among the Abiezrites.
(B.C. before 1256.)
4. Apparently a younger son of Ahab, who held a subordinate jurisdiction in the lifetime of his father.
5. A descendant of Shelah the son of Judah, but whether his son or the son of Jokim is not clear.
6. A Benjamite, son of Shemaah of Gibeah,
who resorted to David at Ziklag.
7. One of the officers of David's household.
8. Son of Becher and head of a Benjamite house.
JOASH, son of Ahaziah, king of Judah. When the impious Athaliah undertook to extinguish the race of the kings of Judah, that she might seize the crown herself, she ordered all the princes, her grandchildren, to be murdered. But Jehosheba, the sister of Ahaziah, and wife to the High Priest Jehoiada, rescued young Joash, then a child, from the cruelty of Athaliah, and lodged him in the temple with his nurse. Here he abode six years. In the seventh year Jehoiada procured him to be acknowledged king, and so well concerted his plan, that young Joash was placed on the throne, and saluted king in the temple, before the queen was informed of it. She was killed without the temple, 2Ki 11:1, &c. Joash received the diadem, together with the book of the law, from the hands of Jehoiada, the high priest, who, in the young king's name, made a covenant between the Lord, the king, and the people, for their future fidelity to God. He also obliged the people to take an oath of fidelity to the king. Joash was only seven years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years at Jerusalem. His mother's name was Zibiah of Beersheba. He governed with justice and piety, so long as he was guided by the High Priest Jehoiada. Yet he did not abolish the high places.
Jehoiada, during the king's minority, had issued orders for collecting voluntary offerings to the holy place, with the design of repairing the temple; but his orders were ill executed till the twentieth year of Joash. Then this prince directed chests to be placed at the entrance of the temple, and an account to be given him of what money was received from them, that it might be faithfully employed in repairing the house of God. Jehoiada dying at the age of a hundred and thirty years, Joash was misled by the evil counsel of his courtiers, who had before been restrained by the high priest's authority. They began to forsake the temple of the Lord, and to worship idols, and groves consecrated to idols. Then the Spirit of the Lord coming upon the High Priest Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, he reproved the people; but they who heard him stoned him, according to orders from their king. It was not long before God inflicted on Joash the just punishment of his ingratitude to Jehoiada, whose son he had so lately murdered. Hazael, king of Syria, besieged Gath, which belonged to Judah; and having taken it he marched against Jerusalem. Joash, to redeem himself from the difficulties of a siege, and from the danger of being plundered, took what money he could find in the temple, which had been consecrated by Ahaziah his father, Jehoram his grandfather, and himself, and gave the whole to Hazael. It is believed by some, that the next year the Syrian army marched again into Judah; but Hazael was not there in person. The Syrians made great havoc, defeated the troops of Joash, entered Jerusalem, slew the princes of Judah, and sent a great booty to the king of Syria at Damascus. They treated Joash himself with great ignominy, and left him extremely ill. His servants then revolted against him, and killed him in his bed, by which the blood of Zechariah the high priest was avenged. He was buried in Jerusalem, but not in the royal sepulchre. Amaziah his son succeeded him.