Reference: Samuel, The Books Of
One book in Hebrew; the Septuagint divided it into two. The Talmud (A.D. 500) is the earliest authority that ascribes the book to Samuel (Baba Bathra 14:2). The Hebrew give it his name because its first part treats of his birth, life, and work. His death recorded in 1 Samuel 25 proves he did not write it all. The Talmud's view, adopted by learned Christian fathers, may be true of the first 24 chapters. That Samuel wrote memoirs, which Nathan the prophet and Gad the seer supplemented, appears from 1Ch 29:29; "now the acts ("history": dibrei) of David the king, first and last, behold they are written in the book ("history": dibrei) of Samuel the seer, and in the book ("history") of Nathan the prophet, and in the book ("history") of Gad the seer." Nehemiah is said in 2Ma 2:13 to have "gathered together the acts in the kings and the prophets." The internal notices favor a date of the memoirs used in compiling 1 and 2 Samuel before the due organization of the temple and Mosaic ritual.
For sacrifices are mentioned with tacit approval, or at least without apology, at other places (Mizpeh, Ramah, Bethel, and Araunah's threshing floor) than before the door of the tabernacle or temple, the only place permitted by the law (1Sa 7:9-10,17; 9:13; 10:3; 14:35; 2Sa 24:18-25). On the contrary the writer of 1 and 2 Kings stigmatizes the high places to Jehovah and blames the kings who sanctioned or connived at them (1Ki 15:14; 22:43; 2Ki 12:3; 14:4; 15:4,35; 16:4; 21:3). In the disestablishment of the Mosaic ritual consequent on the Philistine capture of the ark, and in the unsettled times that followed, even the godly followed Moses less strictly. Hence he is but twice mentioned in all Samuel, and then only as joined with Aaron in delivering Israel out of Egypt; the law is never mentioned (1Sa 12:6,8).
In Joshua "Moses" occurs 56 times; in Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, after the captivity, when a return to the Mosaic standard, was the watchword of the civil and religious restoration, 31 times; in Kings, ten times; in the unsettled era of Judges, three times. Its early date is also implied by its purity of Hebrew as compared with the so-called Chaldaisms of Kings and the still more alloyed language of Chronicles. The passage (1Sa 27:6) "Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day" implies the division between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, but this is probably the comment of the last reviser. If it be the compiler's, then the compilation was made subsequently to the division. Though it does not record David's death it certainly takes it for granted (2Sa 5:5). This passage favors the view that the composition was shortly after his death.
That the composer used various existing materials appears from the distinct, but not irreconcilable, accounts of Saul's first acquaintance with David (1Sa 16:14-23; 17:55-58), also of Saul's death (1Sa 31:2-6,8-13; 2Sa 1:2-12), also of the origin of the proverb "is Saul also among the prophets?" (1Sa 10:9-12; 19:22-24). (See DAVID.) Summaries or endings of different memoirs incorporated by the composer appear in 1Sa 7:15-17; 14:47-52; 2Sa 8:15-18. The only book quoted is the Book of Jasher ("the upright", namely, "nation"), 2Sa 1:18, the bow song or elegy over Saul and Jonathan; once elsewhere (Jos 10:13).
The allusion to "the Lord's king and His anointed" (1Sa 2:10) does not imply that kings already existed, and that therefore this is not Hannah's genuine utterance (for she lived before any king in Israel), but prophetically points on to the necessary culmination of God's kingdom in the coming Messiah, and in David His typical forefather. Probably an inspired member of the schools of the prophets composed the book, incorporating in abridged form existing memoirs and records; so thought Theodoret, Athanasius, and Gregory. A recorder, remembrancer, or chronicler (mazkir) is first mentioned in David's reign (2Sa 8:16; 20:24). The details as to David in Bathsheba's affair, and of Amnon and Tamar, etc., etc., must have been furnished by contemporary memoirs written By persons having intimate access to the royal family. Prophets are prominent in Samuel.
Levites are mentioned only twice (1 Samuel 6; 2Sa 15:24), but thirty times in 1 Chronicles alone, containing David's history. The inspired author being of the prophetic schools naturally embodies Nathan's memoir as to his dealing with David in the Bathsheba sin, and in respect to the promise of permanence to his seed and throne (2 Samuel 7; 12), and Gad's dealing with him at the time of the plague (2 Samuel 24; also 1Sa 22:5). The phrase "Lord of hosts," 62 times found in Isaiah, occurs twice as often in Samuel as in all the other Old Testament histories put together. An undesigned coincidence confirming both occurs between 1Ch 10:12 (which omits notice of the burning), the men of Jabesh Gilead "buried Saul's and his son's bones," and 1Sa 31:12, "they burnt the bodies"; the bones in fragments alone remained after the burning.
Hannah's song must have been preserved by Samuel and incorporated by the compiler. The latter too derived from records David's elegies, 2Sa 1:19-27; 3:33-34; David's psalm, 2Sa 22:2-51; and his last words, 2Sa 23:1-8. Samuel contains, but Chronicles omit, David's kindness to Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 9); the story of Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11; 12); Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 13); the Gibeonites hanging Saul's seven sons (2 Samuel 21); the war with the Philistines (2Sa 21:15-17); David's song (2 Samuel 22), and last words (2 Samuel 23). Dates are seldom given. The period included is somewhat under 155 years, 1171-1015 B.C. The internal evidence of places, times, etc., accords with truthfulness. Christ stamps Samuel as canonical (Mt 12:1-4; compare Ac 3:24; Heb 11:32).
So the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, Until the nation avenged themselves of their enemies Is it not written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day.
"Those who contend with the LORD will be shattered; Against them He will thunder in the heavens, The LORD will judge the ends of the earth; And He will give strength to His king, And will exalt the horn of His anointed."
Samuel took a suckling lamb and offered it for a whole burnt offering to the LORD; and Samuel cried to the LORD for Israel and the LORD answered him. Now Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, and the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel. But the LORD thundered with a great thunder on that day against the Philistines and confused them, so that they were routed before Israel.
Now Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life. He used to go annually on circuit to Bethel and Gilgal and Mizpah, and he judged Israel in all these places. read more. Then his return was to Ramah, for his house was there, and there he judged Israel; and he built there an altar to the LORD.
Then his return was to Ramah, for his house was there, and there he judged Israel; and he built there an altar to the LORD.
"As soon as you enter the city you will find him before he goes up to the high place to eat, for the people will not eat until he comes, because he must bless the sacrifice; afterward those who are invited will eat. Now therefore, go up for you will find him at once."
"Then you will go on further from there, and you will come as far as the oak of Tabor, and there three men going up to God at Bethel will meet you, one carrying three young goats, another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a jug of wine;
Then it happened when he turned his back to leave Samuel, God changed his heart; and all those signs came about on that day. When they came to the hill there, behold, a group of prophets met him; and the Spirit of God came upon him mightily, so that he prophesied among them. read more. It came about, when all who knew him previously saw that he prophesied now with the prophets, that the people said to one another, "What has happened to the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?" A man there said, "Now, who is their father?" Therefore it became a proverb: "Is Saul also among the prophets?"
Then Samuel said to the people, "It is the LORD who appointed Moses and Aaron and who brought your fathers up from the land of Egypt.
"When Jacob went into Egypt and your fathers cried out to the LORD, then the LORD sent Moses and Aaron who brought your fathers out of Egypt and settled them in this place.
And Saul built an altar to the LORD; it was the first altar that he built to the LORD.
Now when Saul had taken the kingdom over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, the sons of Ammon, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines; and wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment. He acted valiantly and defeated the Amalekites, and delivered Israel from the hands of those who plundered them. read more. Now the sons of Saul were Jonathan and Ishvi and Malchi-shua; and the names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn Merab and the name of the younger Michal. The name of Saul's wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. And the name of the captain of his army was Abner the son of Ner, Saul's uncle. Kish was the father of Saul, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel. Now the war against the Philistines was severe all the days of Saul; and when Saul saw any mighty man or any valiant man, he attached him to his staff.
Now the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD terrorized him. Saul's servants then said to him, "Behold now, an evil spirit from God is terrorizing you. read more. "Let our lord now command your servants who are before you. Let them seek a man who is a skillful player on the harp; and it shall come about when the evil spirit from God is on you, that he shall play the harp with his hand, and you will be well." So Saul said to his servants, "Provide for me now a man who can play well and bring him to me." Then one of the young men said, "Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is a skillful musician, a mighty man of valor, a warrior, one prudent in speech, and a handsome man; and the LORD is with him." So Saul sent messengers to Jesse and said, "Send me your son David who is with the flock." Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread and a jug of wine and a young goat, and sent them to Saul by David his son. Then David came to Saul and attended him; and Saul loved him greatly, and he became his armor bearer. Saul sent to Jesse, saying, "Let David now stand before me, for he has found favor in my sight." So it came about whenever the evil spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the harp and play it with his hand; and Saul would be refreshed and be well, and the evil spirit would depart from him.
Now when Saul saw David going out against the Philistine, he said to Abner the commander of the army, "Abner, whose son is this young man?" And Abner said, "By your life, O king, I do not know." The king said, "You inquire whose son the youth is." read more. So when David returned from killing the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul with the Philistine's head in his hand. Saul said to him, "Whose son are you, young man?" And David answered, "I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite."
Then he himself went to Ramah and came as far as the large well that is in Secu; and he asked and said, "Where are Samuel and David?" And someone said, "Behold, they are at Naioth in Ramah." He proceeded there to Naioth in Ramah; and the Spirit of God came upon him also, so that he went along prophesying continually until he came to Naioth in Ramah. read more. He also stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel and lay down naked all that day and all that night Therefore they say, "Is Saul also among the prophets?"
The prophet Gad said to David, "Do not stay in the stronghold; depart, and go into the land of Judah." So David departed and went into the forest of Hereth.
So Achish gave him Ziklag that day; therefore Ziklag has belonged to the kings of Judah to this day.
The Philistines overtook Saul and his sons; and the Philistines killed Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchi-shua the sons of Saul. The battle went heavily against Saul, and the archers hit him; and he was badly wounded by the archers. read more. Then Saul said to his armor bearer, "Draw your sword and pierce me through with it, otherwise these uncircumcised will come and pierce me through and make sport of me " But his armor bearer would not, for he was greatly afraid So Saul took his sword and fell on it. When his armor bearer saw that Saul was dead, he also fell on his sword and died with him. Thus Saul died with his three sons, his armor bearer, and all his men on that day together.
It came about on the next day when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. They cut off his head and stripped off his weapons, and sent them throughout the land of the Philistines, to carry the good news to the house of their idols and to the people. read more. They put his weapons in the temple of Ashtaroth, and they fastened his body to the wall of Beth-shan. Now when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard what the Philistines had done to Saul, all the valiant men rose and walked all night, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, and they came to Jabesh and burned them there.
all the valiant men rose and walked all night, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, and they came to Jabesh and burned them there. They took their bones and buried them under the tamarisk tree at Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
and he told them to teach the sons of Judah the song of the bow; behold, it is written in the book of Jashar. "Your beauty, O Israel, is slain on your high places! How have the mighty fallen! read more. "Tell it not in Gath, Proclaim it not in the streets of Ashkelon, Or the daughters of the Philistines will rejoice, The daughters of the uncircumcised will exult. "O mountains of Gilboa, Let not dew or rain be on you, nor fields of offerings; For there the shield of the mighty was defiled, The shield of Saul, not anointed with oil. "From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, The bow of Jonathan did not turn back, And the sword of Saul did not return empty. "Saul and Jonathan, beloved and pleasant in their life, And in their death they were not parted; They were swifter than eagles, They were stronger than lions. "O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, Who clothed you luxuriously in scarlet, Who put ornaments of gold on your apparel. "How have the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! Jonathan is slain on your high places. "I am distressed for you, my brother Jonathan; You have been very pleasant to me. Your love to me was more wonderful Than the love of women. "How have the mighty fallen, And the weapons of war perished!"
The king chanted a lament for Abner and said, "Should Abner die as a fool dies? "Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put in fetters; As one falls before the wicked, you have fallen." And all the people wept again over him.
At Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.
Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the army, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder.
Now behold, Zadok also came, and all the Levites with him carrying the ark of the covenant of God And they set down the ark of God, and Abiathar came up until all the people had finished passing from the city.
and Adoram was over the forced labor, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was the recorder;
Now when the Philistines were at war again with Israel, David went down and his servants with him; and as they fought against the Philistines, David became weary. Then Ishbi-benob, who was among the descendants of the giant, the weight of whose spear was three hundred shekels of bronze in weight, was girded with a new sword, and he intended to kill David. read more. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah helped him, and struck the Philistine and killed him Then the men of David swore to him, saying, "You shall not go out again with us to battle, so that you do not extinguish the lamp of Israel."
He said, "The LORD is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer; My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge, My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge; My savior, You save me from violence. read more. "I call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised, And I am saved from my enemies. "For the waves of death encompassed me; The torrents of destruction overwhelmed me; The cords of Sheol surrounded me; The snares of death confronted me. "In my distress I called upon the LORD, Yes, I cried to my God; And from His temple He heard my voice, And my cry for help came into His ears. "Then the earth shook and quaked, The foundations of heaven were trembling And were shaken, because He was angry. "Smoke went up out of His nostrils, Fire from His mouth devoured; Coals were kindled by it. "He bowed the heavens also, and came down With thick darkness under His feet. "And He rode on a cherub and flew; And He appeared on the wings of the wind. "And He made darkness canopies around Him, A mass of waters, thick clouds of the sky. "From the brightness before Him Coals of fire were kindled. "The LORD thundered from heaven, And the Most High uttered His voice. "And He sent out arrows, and scattered them, Lightning, and routed them. "Then the channels of the sea appeared, The foundations of the world were laid bare By the rebuke of the LORD, At the blast of the breath of His nostrils. "He sent from on high, He took me; He drew me out of many waters. "He delivered me from my strong enemy, From those who hated me, for they were too strong for me. "They confronted me in the day of my calamity, But the LORD was my support. "He also brought me forth into a broad place; He rescued me, because He delighted in me. "The LORD has rewarded me according to my righteousness; According to the cleanness of my hands He has recompensed me. "For I have kept the ways of the LORD, And have not acted wickedly against my God. "For all His ordinances were before me, And as for His statutes, I did not depart from them. "I was also blameless toward Him, And I kept myself from my iniquity. "Therefore the LORD has recompensed me according to my righteousness, According to my cleanness before His eyes. "With the kind You show Yourself kind, With the blameless You show Yourself blameless; With the pure You show Yourself pure, And with the perverted You show Yourself astute. "And You save an afflicted people; But Your eyes are on the haughty whom You abase. "For You are my lamp, O LORD; And the LORD illumines my darkness. "For by You I can run upon a troop; By my God I can leap over a wall. "As for God, His way is blameless; The word of the LORD is tested; He is a shield to all who take refuge in Him. "For who is God, besides the LORD? And who is a rock, besides our God? "God is my strong fortress; And He sets the blameless in His way. "He makes my feet like hinds' feet, And sets me on my high places. "He trains my hands for battle, So that my arms can bend a bow of bronze. "You have also given me the shield of Your salvation, And Your help makes me great. "You enlarge my steps under me, And my feet have not slipped. "I pursued my enemies and destroyed them, And I did not turn back until they were consumed. "And I have devoured them and shattered them, so that they did not rise; And they fell under my feet. "For You have girded me with strength for battle; You have subdued under me those who rose up against me. "You have also made my enemies turn their backs to me, And I destroyed those who hated me. "They looked, but there was none to save; Even to the LORD, but He did not answer them. "Then I pulverized them as the dust of the earth; I crushed and stamped them as the mire of the streets. "You have also delivered me from the contentions of my people; You have kept me as head of the nations; A people whom I have not known serve me. "Foreigners pretend obedience to me; As soon as they hear, they obey me. "Foreigners lose heart, And come trembling out of their fortresses. "The LORD lives, and blessed be my rock; And exalted be God, the rock of my salvation, The God who executes vengeance for me, And brings down peoples under me, Who also brings me out from my enemies; You even lift me above those who rise up against me; You rescue me from the violent man. "Therefore I will give thanks to You, O LORD, among the nations, And I will sing praises to Your name. "He is a tower of deliverance to His king, And shows lovingkindness to His anointed, To David and his descendants forever."
Now these are the last words of David. David the son of Jesse declares, The man who was raised on high declares, The anointed of the God of Jacob, And the sweet psalmist of Israel, "The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, And His word was on my tongue. read more. "The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me, 'He who rules over men righteously, Who rules in the fear of God, Is as the light of the morning when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, When the tender grass springs out of the earth, Through sunshine after rain.' "Truly is not my house so with God? For He has made an everlasting covenant with me, Ordered in all things, and secured; For all my salvation and all my desire, Will He not indeed make it grow? "But the worthless, every one of them will be thrust away like thorns, Because they cannot be taken in hand; But the man who touches them Must be armed with iron and the shaft of a spear, And they will be completely burned with fire in their place." These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite, chief of the captains, he was called Adino the Eznite, because of eight hundred slain by him at one time;
But the high places were not taken away; nevertheless the heart of Asa was wholly devoted to the LORD all his days.
He walked in all the way of Asa his father; he did not turn aside from it, doing right in the sight of the LORD However, the high places were not taken away; the people still sacrificed and burnt incense on the high places.
all the valiant men arose and took away the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons and brought them to Jabesh, and they buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the chronicles of Samuel the seer, in the chronicles of Nathan the prophet and in the chronicles of Gad the seer,
At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and His disciples became hungry and began to pick the heads of grain and eat. But when the Pharisees saw this, they said to Him, "Look, Your disciples do what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath." read more. But He said to them, "Have you not read what David did when he became hungry, he and his companions, how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?
"And likewise, all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and his successors onward, also announced these days.