'Sun' in the Bible
And God made the two great lights -- "the greater light (the sun) to rule the day and the lesser light (the moon) to rule the night. He also made the stars.
When the sun was setting, a deep sleep overcame Abram, and a horror (a terror, a shuddering fear) of great darkness assailed and oppressed him.
When the sun had gone down and a [thick] darkness had come on, behold, a smoking oven and a flaming torch passed between those pieces.
The sun had risen over the earth when Lot entered Zoar.
And he came to a certain place and stayed there overnight, because the sun was set. Taking one of the stones of the place, he put it under his head and lay down there to sleep.
He said, The sun is still high; it is a long time yet before the flocks need be gathered [in their folds]. [Why not] water the sheep and return them to their pasture?
And as he passed Penuel [Peniel], the sun rose upon him, and he was limping because of his thigh.
But Joseph dreamed yet another dream and told it to his brothers [also]. He said, See here, I have dreamed again, and behold, [this time not only] eleven stars [but also] the sun and the moon bowed down and did reverence to me!
They gathered it every morning, each as much as he needed, for when the sun became hot it melted.
But Moses' hands were heavy and grew weary. So [the other men] took a stone and put it under him and he sat on it. Then Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side and one on the other side; so his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.
But if the sun has risen [so he can be seen], blood must be shed for slaying him. The thief [if he lives] must make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.
If you ever take your neighbor's garment in pledge, you shall give it back to him before the sun goes down;
When the sun is down, he shall be clean, and afterward may eat of the holy things, for they are his food.
And the Lord said to Moses, Take all the leaders or chiefs of the people, and hang them before the Lord in the sun [after killing them], that the fierce anger of the Lord may turn away from Israel.
And beware lest you lift up your eyes to the heavens, and when you see the sun, moon, and stars, even all the host of the heavens, you be drawn away and worship them and serve them, things which the Lord your God has allotted to all nations under the whole heaven.
Are they not beyond the Jordan, west of the road, where the sun goes down, in the land of the Canaanites living in the Arabah opposite Gilgal, beside the oaks or terebinths of Moreh?
Who has gone and served other gods and worshiped them, or the sun or moon or any of the host of the heavens, which I have forbidden,
But when evening comes he shall bathe himself in water, and when the sun is down he may return to the camp.
You shall give him his hire on the day he earns it before the sun goes down, for he is poor, and sets his heart upon it; lest he cry against you to the Lord, and it be sin to you.
With the precious things of the fruits of the sun and with the precious yield of the months,
Then Joshua spoke to the Lord on the day when the Lord gave the Amorites over to the Israelites, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, be silent and stand still at Gibeon, and you, moon, in the Valley of Ajalon!
And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the nation took vengeance upon their enemies. Is not this written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of the heavens and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day.
The Amorites remained fixed in Mount Heres [mountain of the sun], in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim; yet the hand of the house of Joseph prevailed, so that they became subject to forced labor.
So let all Your enemies perish, O Lord! But let those who love Him be like the sun when it rises in its might. And the land had peace and rest for forty years.
Then in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, rise early and set upon the city; and when Gaal and the men with him come out against you, do to them as opportunity permits.
So they passed on and went their way, and the sun went down on them near Gibeah, which belongs to Benjamin,
The messengers who came were told, Say to the men of Jabesh-gilead, Tomorrow, by the time the sun is hot, you shall have help. The messengers came and reported to the men of Jabesh, and they were glad.
But Joab and Abishai [his brothers] pursued Abner; the sun was going down as they came to the hill of Ammah, before Giah on the way to the wilderness of Gibeon.
All the people came to urge David to eat food while it was yet day; but David took an oath, saying, May God do so to me, and more also, if I taste bread or anything else, till the sun is down.
Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against you out of your own house; and I will take your wives before your eyes and give them to your neighbor, and he shall lie with your wives in the sight of this sun.
For you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel and before the sun.
He dawns on them like the morning light when the sun rises on a cloudless morning, when the tender grass springs out of the earth through clear shining after rain.
When they rose up early next morning, and the sun shone upon the water, the Moabites saw the water across from them as red as blood.
He put away the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in Judah's cities and round about Jerusalem -- "also those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the constellations [or twelve signs of the zodiac], and to all the hosts of the heavens.
And he removed the horses that the kings of Judah had devoted to the sun from the entrance of the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the area, and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire.
I said to them, Let not the gates of Jerusalem be opened until the sun is hot; and while the watchmen are still on guard, let them shut and bar the doors. Appoint guards from the people of Jerusalem, each to his watch [on the wall] and each opposite his own house.
He is green before the sun, and his shoots go forth over his garden.
Who commands the sun, and it rises not; Who seals up the stars [from view];
I go about blackened, but not by the sun; I stand up in the congregation and cry for help.
Yet their voice [in evidence] goes out through all the earth, their sayings to the end of the world. Of the heavens has God made a tent for the sun,
And He will make your uprightness and right standing with God go forth as the light, and your justice and right as [the shining sun of] the noonday.
The Mighty One, God, the Lord, speaks and calls the earth from the rising of the sun to its setting.
Let them be as a snail dissolving slime as it passes on or as a festering sore which wastes away, like [the child to which] a woman gives untimely birth that has not seen the sun.
So that they may revere and fear You while the sun and moon endure, throughout all generations.
His name shall endure forever; His name shall continue as long as the sun [indeed, His name continues before the sun]. And men shall be blessed and bless themselves by Him; all nations shall call Him blessed!
The day is Yours, the night also is Yours; You have established the [starry] light and the sun.
For the Lord God is a Sun and Shield; the Lord bestows [present] grace and favor and [future] glory (honor, splendor, and heavenly bliss)! No good thing will He withhold from those who walk uprightly.
His Offspring shall endure forever, and his throne [shall continue] as the sun before Me.
My days are like an evening shadow that stretches out and declines [with the sun]; and I am withered like grass.
[The Lord] appointed the moon for the seasons; the sun knows [the exact time of] its setting.
When the sun arises, they withdraw themselves and lie down in their dens.
From the rising of the sun to the going down of it and from east to west, the name of the Lord is to be praised!
The sun shall not smite you by day, nor the moon by night.
The sun to rule over the day, for His mercy and loving-kindness endure forever;
Praise Him, sun and moon, praise Him, all you stars of light!
What profit does man have left from all his toil at which he toils under the sun? [Is life worth living?]
The sun also rises and the sun goes down, and hastens to the place where it rises.
The thing that has been -- "it is what will be again, and that which has been done is that which will be done again; and there is nothing new under the sun.
I have seen all the works that are done under the sun, and behold, all is vanity, a striving after the wind and a feeding on wind.
Then I looked on all that my hands had done and the labor I had spent in doing it, and behold, all was vanity and a striving after the wind and a feeding on it, and there was no profit under the sun.
So I hated life, because what is done under the sun was grievous to me; for all is vanity and a striving after the wind and a feeding on it.
And I hated all my labor in which I had toiled under the sun, seeing that I must leave it to the man who will succeed me.
And who knows whether he will be a wise man or a fool? Yet he will have dominion over all my labor in which I have toiled and in which I have shown myself wise under the sun. This is also vanity (emptiness, falsity, and futility)!
So I turned around and gave my heart up to despair over all the labor of my efforts under the sun.
For what has a man left from all his labor and from the striving and vexation of his heart in which he has toiled under the sun?
He has made everything beautiful in its time. He also has planted eternity in men's hearts and minds [a divinely implanted sense of a purpose working through the ages which nothing under the sun but God alone can satisfy], yet so that men cannot find out what God has done from the beginning to the end.
Moreover, I saw under the sun that in the place of justice there was wickedness, and that in the place of righteousness wickedness was there also.
I said in my heart regarding the subject of the sons of men, God is trying (separating and sifting) them, that they may see that by themselves [under the sun, without God] they are but like beasts.
Then I returned and considered all the oppressions that are practiced under the sun: And I beheld the tears of the oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors was power, but they [too] had no comforter.
But better than them both [I thought] is he who has not yet been born, who has not seen the evil deeds that are done under the sun.
Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun [in one of its peculiar forms].
I saw all the living who walk under the sun with the youth who was to stand up in the king's stead.
There is a serious and severe evil which I have seen under the sun: riches were kept by their owner to his hurt.
Behold, what I have seen to be good and fitting is for one to eat and drink, and to find enjoyment in all the labor in which he labors under the sun all the days which God gives him -- "for this is his [allotted] part.
There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it lies heavily upon men:
Moreover, he has not seen the sun nor had any knowledge, yet he [the stillborn child] has rest rather than he [who is aware of all that he has missed and all that he would not have had to suffer].
For who [ limited to human wisdom] knows what is good for man in his life, all the days of his vain life which he spends as a shadow [going through the motions but accomplishing nothing]? For who can tell a man what will happen [to his work, his treasure, his plans] under the sun after he is gone?
Wisdom is as good as an inheritance, yes, more excellent it is for those [the living] who see the sun.
All this have I seen while applying my mind to every work that is done under the sun. There is a time in which one man has power over another to his own hurt or to the other man's.
Then I commended enjoyment, because a man has no better thing under the sun [without God] than to eat and to drink and to be joyful, for that will remain with him in his toil through the days of his life which God gives him under the sun.
Then I saw all the work of God, that man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun -- "because however much a man may toil in seeking, yet he will not find it out; yes, more than that, though a wise man thinks and claims he knows, yet will he not be able to find it out.
This evil is in all that is done under the sun: one fate comes to all. Also the hearts of men are full of evil, and madness is in their hearts while they live, and after that they go to the dead.
Their love and their hatred and their envy have already perished; neither have they any more a share in anything that is done under the sun.
Live joyfully with the wife whom you love all the days of your vain life which He has given you under the sun -- "all the days of futility. For that is your portion in this life and in your work at which you toil under the sun.
I returned and saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong, neither is bread to the wise nor riches to men of intelligence and understanding nor favor to men of skill; but time and chance happen to them all.
This [illustration of] wisdom have I seen also under the sun, and it seemed great to me:
There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, like an error which proceeds from the ruler:
Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun.
Before the sun and the light and the moon and the stars are darkened [sight is impaired], and the clouds [of depression] return after the rain [of tears];
All has been heard; the end of the matter is: Fear God [revere and worship Him, knowing that He is] and keep His commandments, for this is the whole of man [the full, original purpose of his creation, the object of God's providence, the root of character, the foundation of all happiness, the adjustment to all inharmonious circumstances and conditions under the sun] and the whole [duty] for every man.
[Please] do not look at me, [she said, for] I am swarthy. [I have worked out] in the sun and it has left its mark upon me. My stepbrothers were angry with me, and they made me keeper of the vineyards; but my own vineyard [my complexion] I have not kept.
[The ladies asked] Who is this that looks forth like the dawn, fair as the moon, clear and pure as the sun, and terrible as a bannered host?
For the stars of the heavens and their constellations will not give their light; the sun will be darkened at its rising and the moon will not shed its light.
In that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of [the Hebrews of] Canaan and swear allegiance to the Lord of hosts. One of them will be called the City of the Sun or Destruction.
Then the moon will be confounded and the sun ashamed, when [they compare their ineffectual fire to the light of] the Lord of hosts, Who will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders will show forth His glory.
Moreover, the light of the moon will be like the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be sevenfold, like the light of seven days [concentrated in one], in the day that the Lord binds up the hurt of His people, and heals their wound [inflicted by Him because of their sins].
But those who wait for the Lord [who expect, look for, and hope in Him] shall change and renew their strength and power; they shall lift their wings and mount up [close to God] as eagles [mount up to the sun]; they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint or become tired.
I have raised up and impelled to action one from the north [Cyrus], and he comes; from the rising of the sun he calls upon My name [recognizing that his victories have been granted to him by Me]. And he shall tread upon rulers and deputies as upon mortar and as the potter treads clay. [He comes with the suddenness of a comet, but none of the idol oracles of the nations has anticipated it.]
That men may know from the east and the rising of the sun and from the west and the setting of the sun that there is no God besides Me. I am the Lord, and no one else [is He].
Saying to those who are bound, Come forth, and to those who are in [spiritual] darkness, Show yourselves [come into the light of the Sun of righteousness]. They shall feed in all the ways [in which they go], and their pastures shall be [not in deserts, but] on all the bare [grass-covered] hills.
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