Reference: Holy Ghost
the third Person of the adorable Trinity.
His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (Joh 14:17,26; 15:26; 1Co 2:10-11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (Joh 16:7-13; Ro 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Lu 12:12; Ac 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1Co 2:13; Heb 2:4; 3:7; 2Pe 1:21).
His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Ex 17:7; Ps 95:7; comp. Heb 3:7-11); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps 139:7; Eph 2:17-18; 1Co 12:13); omniscience (1Co 2:10-11); omnipotence (Lu 1:35; Ro 8:11); eternity (Heb 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him (Ge 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps 104:30), and the working of miracles (Mt 12:28; 1Co 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa 6:3; Ac 28:25; Ro 9:1; Re 1:4; Mt 28:19).
HOLY GHOST, the third person in the Trinity. The orthodox doctrine is, that as Christ is God by an eternal filiation, so the Spirit is God by procession from the Father and the Son. "And I believe in the Holy Ghost," says the Nicene Creed, "the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, who, with the Father and the Son together, is worshipped and glorified." And with this agrees the Athanasian Creed, "The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding." In the Articles of the English church it is thus expressed: "The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory with the Father and the Son, very and eternal God." The Latin church introduced the term spiration from spiro, "to breathe," to denote the manner of this procession; on which Dr. Owen remarks, "As the vital breath of a man has a continual emanation from him, and yet is never separated utterly from his person, or forsaketh him, so doth the Spirit of the Father and the Son proceed from them by a continual divine emanation, still abiding one with them." On this refined view little can be said which has clear Scriptural authority; and yet the very term by which the Third Person in the Trinity is designated, Wind or Breath, may, as to the Third Person, be designed, like the term Son applied to the Second, to convey, though imperfectly, some intimation of that manner of being by which both are distinguished from each other, and from the Father; and it was a remarkable action of our Lord, and one certainly which does not discountenance this idea, that when he imparted the Holy Ghost to his disciples, "He breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost," Joh 20:22.
2. But, whatever we may think as to the doctrine of spiration, the profession of the Holy Ghost rests on more direct Scriptural authority, and is thus stated by Bishop Pearson: "Now the procession of the Spirit, in reference to the Father, is delivered expressly in relation to the Son, and is contained virtually in the Scriptures.
1. It is expressly said, that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father, as our Saviour testifieth, 'When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me,' Joh 15:26. And this is also evident from what hath been already asserted; for being the Father and the Spirit are the same God, and, being so the same in the unity of the nature of God, are yet distinct in the personality, one of them must have the same nature from the other; and because the Father hath been already shown to have it from none, it followeth that the Spirit hath it from him.
2. Though it be not expressly spoken in the Scripture, that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father and Son, yet the substance of the same truth is virtually contained there; because those very expressions which are spoken of the Holy Spirit in relation to the Father, for that reason, because he proceedeth from the Father, are also spoken of the same Spirit in relation to the Son; and therefore there must be the same reason presupposed in reference to the Son, which is expressed in reference to the Father. Because the Spirit proceedeth from the Father, therefore it is called 'the Spirit of God,' and 'the Spirit of the Father.' 'It is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you,' Mt 10:20. For by the language of the Apostle, 'the Spirit of God' is the Spirit which is of God, saying, 'The things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. And we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God,' 1Co 2:11-12. How the same Spirit is also called 'the Spirit of the Son:' for 'because we are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts,' Ga 4:6. 'The Spirit of Christ:' 'Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his,' '/Romans/8/9'>Ro 8:9; 'Even the Spirit of Christ which was in the prophets,' 1Pe 1:11. 'The Spirit of Jesus Christ,' as the Apostle speaks: 'I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,' Php 1:19. If then the Holy Ghost be called 'the Spirit of the Father,' because he proceedeth from the Father, it followeth that, being called also 'the Spirit of the Son,' he proceedeth also from the Son. Again: because the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father, he is therefore sent by the Father, as from him who hath, by the original communication, a right of mission; as, 'the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send,' Joh 14:26. But the same Spirit which is sent by the Father, is also sent by the Son, as he saith, 'When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you.' Therefore the Son hath the same right of mission with the Father, and consequently must be acknowledged to have communicated the same essence. The Father is never sent by the Son, because he received not the Godhead from him; but the Father sendeth the Son, because he communicated the Godhead to him: in the same manner, neither the Father nor the Son is ever sent by the Holy Spirit; because neither of them received the divine nature from the Spirit: but both the Father and the Son sendeth the Holy Ghost, because the divine nature, common to the Father and the Son, was communicated by them both to the Holy Ghost. As therefore the Scriptures declare expressly, that the Spirit proceedeth from the Father; so do they also virtually teach, that he proceedeth from the Son."
3. Arius regarded the Spirit not only as a creature, but as created by Christ, ?????? ?????????, the creature of a creature. Some time afterward, his personality was wholly denied by the Arians, and he was considered as the exerted energy of God. This appears to have been the notion of Socinus, and, with occasional modifications, has been adopted by his followers. They sometimes regard him as an attribute; and at others, resolve the passages in which he is spoken of into a periphrasis, or circumlocution for God himself; or, to express both in one, into a figure of speech.
4. In establishing the proper personality and deity of the Holy Ghost, the first argument may be drawn from the frequent association, in Scripture, of a Person under that appellation with two other Persons, one of whom, the Father, is by all acknowledged to be divine; and the ascription to each of them, or to the three in union, of the same acts, titles, and authority, with worship, of the same kind, and, for any distinction that is made, of an equal degree. The manifestation of the existence and divinity of the Holy Spirit may be expected in the law and the prophets, and is, in fact, to be traced there with certainty. The Spirit is represented as an agent in creation, "moving upon the face of the waters;" and it forms no objection to the argument, that creation is ascribed to the Father, and also to the Son, but is a great confirmation of it. That creation should be effected by all the three Persons of the Godhead, though acting in different respects, yet so that each should be a Creator, and, therefore, both a Person and a divine Person, can be explained only by their unity in one essence. On every other hypothesis this Scriptural fact is disallowed, and therefore no other hypothesis can be true. If the Spirit of God be a mere influence, then he is not a Creator, distinct from the Father and the Son, because he is not a Person; but this is refuted both by the passage just quoted, and by Ps 33:6: "By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath (Hebrews Spirit) of his mouth." This is farther confirmed by Job 33:4: "The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life;" where the second clause is obviously exegetic of the former: and the whole text proves that, in the patriarchal age, the followers of the true religion ascribed creation to the Spirit, as well as to the Father; and that one of his appellations was, "the
Breath of the Almighty." Did such passages stand lone, there might, indeed, be some plausibility in the cri