Reference: New Testament
(Lu 22:20), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works. It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive, and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible. (See Testament.)
And the cup in like manner, after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
(See BIBLE; CANON; INSPIRATION.) hee kainee diatheekee. See Heb 9:15-17; 8:6-13. The Greek term diateeeekee combines the two ideas "covenant" and "testament," which the KJV gives separately, though the Greek is the same for both. "Covenant" expresses its obligatory character, God having bound Himself by promise (Ga 3:15-18; Heb 6:17-18). "Testament" expresses that, unlike other covenants, it is not a matter of bargaining, but all of God's grace, just as a testator has absolute power to do what he will with his own. Jesus' death brings the will of God in our favor into force. The night before His death He said "I appoint unto you by testamentary disposition (diatitheemi) a kingdom" (Lu 22:29). There was really only one Testament - latent in the Old Testament, patent in the New Testament. The disciples were witnesses of the New Testament, and the Lord's Supper was its seal. The Old and New Testament Scriptures are the written documents containing the terms of the will.
TEXT. The "Received Text" (i.e. the "Textus Receptus" or TR) is that of Robert Stephens' edition. Bentley (Letter to Wake in 1716 A.D.) said truly, "after the Complutenses and Erasmus, who had very ordinary manuscripts, the New Testament became the property of booksellers. R. Stephens' edition, regulated by himself alone, has now become as if an apostle were its compositor. I find that by taking 2,000 errors out of the Pope's Vulgate (i.e. correcting by older Latin manuscripts the edition of Jerome's Vulgate put forth by Sixtus V, A.D. 1590, with anathemas against any who should alter it 'in minima particula,' and afterwards altered by Clement VIII (1592) in 2,000 places in spite of Sixtus' anathema) and as many out of the Protestant pope Stephens' edition, I can set out an edition of each (Latin, Vulgate, and Greek text) in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tallies can agree better. ... These will prove each other to a demonstration, for I alter not a word of my own head."
The first printed edition of the Greek Testament was that in the Complutensian Polyglot, January, 10, 1514 A.D. Scripture was known in western Europe for many ages previously only through the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. F. Ximenes de Cisneros, of Toledo, undertook the work, to celebrate the birth of Charles V. Complutum (Alcala) gave the name. Lopez de Stunica was chief of its New Testament editors. The whole Polyglot was completed the same year that Luther affixed his 95 theses against indulgences to the door of the church at Wittenberg. Leo X lent the manuscripts used for it from the Vatican. It follows modern Greek manuscripts in all cases where these differ from the ancient manuscripts and from the oldest Greek fathers. The Old Testament Vulgate (the translation which is authorized by Rome) is in the central column, between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew (the original); and the editors compare the first to Christ crucified between the impenitent (the Hebrew) and the penitent (the Greek) thief!
Though there is no Greek authority for 1Jo 5:7, they supplied it and told Erasmus that the Latin Vulgate's authority outweighs the original Greek! They did not know that the oldest copies of Jerome's Vulgate omit it; the manuscript of Wizanburg of the eighth century being the oldest that contains it. Owing to the Complutensian Greek New Testament not being published, though printed, until the Polyglot was complete, Erasmus' Greek New Testament was the first published, namely, by Froben a printer of Basle, March 1516, six years before the Complutensian. The providence of God at the dawn of the Reformation thus furnished earnest students with Holy Scripture in the original language sanctioned by the Holy Spirit. Erasmus completed his edition in haste, and did not have the scruples to supply, by translating into Greek front the Vulgate, both actual hiatuses in his Greek manuscripts and what he supposed to be so, especially in the Apocalypse, for which he had only one mutilated manuscript.
To the outcry against hint for omitting the testimony of the three heavenly witnesses he replied, it is not omission but non-addition; even some Latin copies do not have it, and Cyril of Alexandria showed in his Thesaurus he did not know it; on the Codex Montfortianus (originally in possession of a Franciscan, Froy, who possibly wrote it, now in Trinity College, Dublin) being produced with it, Erasmus INSERTED it. So clumsily did the translator of the Vulgate Latin into Greek execute this manuscript that he neglects to put the necessary Greek article before "Father," "Word," and" Spirit." Erasmus' fifth edition is the basis of our "Received Text." In 1546 and 1549 R. Stephens printed two small editions at Paris, and in 1550 a folio edition, following Erasmus' fifth edition almost exclusively, and adding in the margin readings from the Complutensian edition and from 15 manuscripts collected by his son Henry, the first large collection of readings. The fourth edition at Geneva, 1551, was the first divided into modern verses. Beza next edited the Greek New Testament, generally following Stephens' text, with a few changes on manuscript authority.
He possessed the two famous manuscripts, namely, the Gospels and Acts, now by his gift in the university of Cambridge; "Codex Bezae" or "Cantabrigiensis," D; and the epistles of Paul, "Codex Clermontanus" (brought from Clermont), now in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris; both are in Greek and Latin. The Elzevirs, printers at Leyden, published two editions, the first in 1624, the second in 1633, on the basis of R. Stephens' third edition, with corrections from Beza's. The unknown editor, without stating his critical principles, gravely declares in the preface: "texture habes ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus"; stranger still, the public for two centuries has accepted this so-called "Received Text" as if infallible. When textual criticism was scarcely understood, theological convenience accepted it as a compromise between the Roman Catholic Complutensian edition and the Protestant edition of Stephens and Beza. Mill (1707) has established Stephens' as the Received Text in England; on the continent the Elzevir is generally recognized.
Thus, an uncritical Greek text of publishers has been for ages submitted to by Protestants, though abjuring blind assent to tradition, and laughing at the claim to infallibility of the two popes who declared each of two diverse editions of the Vulgate to be exclusively authentic. (The council of Trent, 1545, had pronounced the Latin Vulgate to be the authentic word of God). Frequent handling and transmission soon destroyed the originals. If the autographs of the inspired writers had been preserved, textual criticism would not have been necessary. But the oldest MSS, existing, Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph) Codex Vaticanus (B), Codex Alexandrinus (A), are not older than the fourth century. Parchment was costly (2Ti 4:13). Papyrus paper which the sacred writers used (2Jo 1:12; 3Jo 1:13) was fragile. No superstitious or antiquarian interest was felt in the autographs which copies superseded. The Diocletian persecution (A.D. 303) attacked the Scriptures, and traditores (Augustine, 76, section 2) gave them up.
Constantine ordered 50 manuscripts to be written on fair skins for the use of the church. God has not seen fit (by a perpetual miracle) to preserve the text from transcriptional errors. Having by extraordinary revelation once bestowed the gift, He leaves its preservation to ordinary laws, yet by His secret providence furnishes the church, its guardian and witness, with the means to ensure its accuracy in all essentials (Ro 3:2). Criticism does not make variations, but finds them, and turns them into means of ascertaining approximately the original text. More materials exist for restoring the genuine text of New Testament than for that of any ancient work. Whitby attacked Mill for presenting in his edition 30,000 various readings found in manuscripts. Collins, the infidel, availed himself of Whitby's unsound argument that textual variations render Scripture uncertain.
But of that day and hour no man knoweth, not even the angels of heaven, but my Father alone.
Then at midnight the cry came, Behold, the bridegroom is coming; go forth to meet him.
And very early on the first day of the week, they come to the sepulchre, as the sun was rising. And said among themselves, Who will roll away for us the stone from the door of the sepulchre? read more. And looking again, they saw that the stone was rolled away, for it was vastly large. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting at the right hand, clothed in a white robe; and they were greatly terrified.
And I appoint you, as my Father hath appointed me, a kingdom;
Much in every view: the principal one indeed is, that the oracles of God were entrusted to them.
O INFATUATED Galatians, who hath bewitched you that ye should not obey the truth? To whom Jesus Christ has been described, as before your eyes, crucified among you.
Brethren, I speak humanly; to use a similitude, a man's testament, if it be passed in legal form, no man can vacate, or add thereunto. But to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed. He saith not, To seeds, as unto many persons; but as to an individual, and to thy seed, which is Christ. read more. Now this I say, the covenant confirmed of God to Christ, the law, which was given three hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, so as to vacate the promise. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more by promise; but to Abraham God gave it freely by promise.
The cloke which I left behind me at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest bring, and the books, especially the parchments.
And thus God, designing more abundantly to demonstrate to the heirs of promise the immutability of his will, pledged himself by oath, that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold on the hope set before us;
But now hath Christ obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as he is the mediator of a better covenant, which hath been established on better promises. For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no place sought for a second. read more. For finding fault with them, he saith, "Behold, the days are coming, saith the Lord; and I will accomplish for the house of Israel and for the house of Judah a new covenant: not according to that covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day when I laid hold upon their hand to lead them up out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I took no longer care of them, saith the Lord. For this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; giving my laws to their understanding, even on their hearts will I inscribe them: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. And they shall no more teach every man his neighbour, and every one his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me from the mean man of them unto the great among them. For I will be placable to their unrighteousnesses and their sins, and their iniquities I will never more remember." In calling it a new covenant, he hath made the first antiquated. Now what is antiquated and grown aged, is near evanescence.
how much more shall the blood of Christ, who, by the eternal Spirit, offered up himself in sacrifice without blemish to God, cleanse our conscience from dead works, that we may perform divine service to the living God? And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that, death being suffered for the redemption of transgressions committed against the first testament, they who are called might receive the promise of an eternal inheritance. read more. For where a testament is, of necessity the death of the testator is implied. For a testament is valid when men are dead; for else it is of no efficacy whilst the testator is alive.
For they are three who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these, even the three, are one.
For the general contents of the New Testament see BIBLE. See also COVENANT. The chronology of the principal events recorded in the New Testament is given in the following tables, with approximate dates. The dates of the Epistles of Peter, James, John, and Jude are according to the A.V. For the date of the crucifixion see SEVENTY WEEKS: other dates are reckoned from that.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
27 Augustus emperor of Rome
6 Census in Judaea. Birth of John the Baptist
5 Birth of Jesus (Four full years before A.D.) Presentation in the temple.
4 Visit of the magi. Flight into Egypt, Massacre of infants. Death of Herod;
Archelaus made ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea
Herod Antipas tetrarch of Peraea and Galilee. Philip tetrarch of Ituraea, Trachonitis. etc.
6 Quirinis (Cyrenius) governor of Syria the second time
Archelaus banished, and Judaea made a province of Syria.
7 Enrolment, or taxation, under Cyrenius. Annas made high priest
8 Jesus at Jerusalem. Lu 2:42-46
Lu 2:14 Tiberias emperor of Rome: reigns alone
17 Caiaphas made high priest
26 Pontius Pilate procurator of Judaea
John commences his ministry. (See TIBERIUS.) Mr 1:1-11
Baptism of Jesus. The Temptation
Miracle of the water made wine at Cana. Joh 2:1-11
Jesus visits Capernaum
The first Passover. Jesus cleanses the temple. Joh 2:13-22
John cast into prison. Jesus preaches in Galilee Mr 1:14-15
Jesus at the synagogue at Nazareth: cast out of the city. Lu 4:16-30
Jesus visits the towns of Galilee Mr 1:38-39
The twelve Apostles chosen Mr 3:13-19
Sermon on the Mount. Matt. 5.- 7; Lu 6:17-49
Miracles in the land of the Gadarenes. Mr 5:1-20
The Jews offended at Jesus at Nazareth. Mr 6:1-5
Jesus again visits the villages around. Mr 6:6
Jesus sends forth the twelve. Mr 6:7-13
Death of John the Baptist. Mr 6:17-29
Feeding the five thousand. Mr 6:35-44
Miracles in Gennesaret. Mr 6:53-56
Mr 6:28 Approach of the third Passover Joh 6:4
Feeding the four thousand. Mr 8:1-9
The Transfiguration. Mr 9:2-10
Feast of Tabernacles. John 7.
Journey towards Jerusalem. Lu 9:51
The seventy disciples sent out. Lu 10:1-16
Feast of Dedication (winter). Joh 10:22-39
Jesus goes away beyond Jordan. Joh 10:40-42
The raising of Lazarus at Bethany. Joh 11:1-44
Jesus retires to Ephraim. Joh 11:54
Joh 11:29 Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. Cleanses the temple Mr 11:1-18
The Greeks visit Jesus. Voice from heaven. Joh 12:20-36
The last (fourth) Passover. The Lord's supper Mr 14:1-2
The Crucifixion. Ascension. Pentecost
30-34 The events from Pentecost to Stephen. Acts 2
THE beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; as it is written in the prophets; "Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, he shall prepare thy way before thee. read more. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths strait." John was baptising in the wilderness, and preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. And all the country of Judea went out to him, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptised by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. Now John was clothed with a camel's hair garment, and a girdle of leather about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. And he preached, saying, One mightier than I is coming after me, the string of whose shoes I am not worthy, stooping down, to unloose. I indeed baptise you with water; but he shall baptise you with the Holy Ghost. And it came to pass in those days, Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee, and was baptised of John in Jordan. And immediately on going up from the water, he saw the heavens divided by a chasm, and the Spirit as a dove descending upon him: and a voice came from heaven, Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased.
But after John was delivered up, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God: and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God draweth nigh: repent, and believe the gospel.
And they were all in astonishment, so that they questioned one another, saying, What is this? what is this new doctrine? that with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him?
And he said unto them, Let us go into the neighbouring towns, that I may preach there also; for unto this purpose came I forth. And he was preaching in their synagogues, through all Galilee, and casting out devils.
And he went up into a mountain, and called to him those whom he chose; and they came to him. And he appointed twelve to be with him, and to send them out to preach: read more. and to have authority to cure diseases, and to cast out devils: and Simon he surnamed Peter; and James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and surnamed them Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder: and Andrew and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him: and they came into an house.
AND they came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. And as he was going out of the vessel, immediately there met him a man with an unclean spirit, read more. coming out of the tombs; who had his abode among the tombs; and no man could secure him, not even with chains; for he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains were burst asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces, and no man was able to master him: and continually night and day he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, screaming, and cutting himself with stones. But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, and crying with a loud voice, said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus thou Son of God most high? I adjure thee by God, that thou dost not send me to torment. (For he had said unto him, Come out, unclean spirit, from the man.) And he interrogated him, What is thy name? and he replied, saying, Legion is my name; for we are many. And he entreated him much that he would not send them out of the country. And a great herd of swine was there feeding on the mountain: and all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. And immediately Jesus permitted them. And the unclean spirits going forth, entered into the swine; and the herd rushed violently down a precipice into the sea (they were about two thousand), and were suffocated in the sea. Then the swineherds fled, and carried the tidings into the city and into the country. And they went out to see what was done. And they came to Jesus, and saw the demoniac that had the legion, seated and clothed, and in his sound mind: and they were afraid. And they who saw the transaction, told them how it had been with the demoniac, and concerning the swine. And they began to entreat him to depart out of their coasts. And when he embarked on board the vessel, the demoniac besought him, that he might go with him. But Jesus did not permit him, but said to him, Go to thine house, and to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee. And he went out, and began to publish in Decapolis, what great things Jesus had done for him: and all men marvelled.
AND he went out thence, and came into his native country; and his disciples followed him. And when the sabbath came, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many when they heard him were amazed, saying, Whence hath this man these things? and what is the wisdom given to him, that even such miracles are done by his hands? read more. Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James and Joses, and Judah and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him. Then said Jesus unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his native place, and among his relations, and in his own family. And he could not do there any miracle, except that laying his hands on a few sick persons he cured them. And he marvelled at their infidelity. And he went about the villages around, teaching. And called the twelve, and began to send them two and two, and gave them authority over unclean spirits. And he commanded them, that they should take nothing for the journey, except a staff only; neither scrip, nor bread, nor even brass money in their purse: wearing sandals, and not to be clothed with two coats. And he said unto them, Wheresoever ye enter into a family, there abide until ye depart thence. And as many as shall not receive you, neither hearken to you, when ye go from thence, shake off the dust from beneath your feet, for a testimony against them. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. And going forth, they preached, that men should repent. And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many sick persons, and cured them.
For Herod himself had sent and seized upon John, and bound him in prison, for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife; because he had married her. For John said to Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife. read more. Therefore Herodias bore him a rooted resentment, and would have slain him; yet could not: for Herod feared John, knowing him to be a righteous and holy man; and paid great attention to him and when he heard him, did many things, and heard him with delight. And a favourable day being come for her purpose, when Herod on his birth-day made a supper for his nobles, and military commanders, and the principal personages of Galilee; and the daughter of this Herodias coming in, and dancing, and delighting Herod, and his company, the king said to the damsel, Ask me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee. And he swore unto her, That whatsoever thou shalt ask, I will give thee, even to the half of my kingdom. Then she went out and said to her mother, What shall I ask? and she said, The head of John the Baptist. And she came in immediately with eagerness to the king, and asked, saying, I desire that thou wilt give me on the spot, in a charger, the head of John the Baptist. And the king was exceedingly sorry; yet on account of his oath, and those who sat with him, he would not refuse her. And the king immediately sending a centinel, commanded his head to be brought thither: and he went, and beheaded him in the prison, and brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel, and the damsel gave it to her mother.
and brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel, and the damsel gave it to her mother. And when his disciples heard it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a sepulchre.
And when great part of the day was already gone, his disciples coming to him said, This is a desert place, and much of the day is already gone: send them away, that they may go into the country places and villages around, and buy themselves bread; for they have nothing to eat. read more. But he answering said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go and buy the value of two hundred denarii, in loaves, and give them to eat? But he said to them, How many loaves have ye? go and see. And when they knew, they said, Five, and two fishes. And he commanded them to seat them all by companies on the green grass: and they lay along row against row, a hundred deep, and fifty wide. And taking the five loaves and the two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to the disciples, that they should set them before them, and the two fishes he divided among them all. And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments, and of the fishes. And they who did eat of the loaves, were about five thousand men.
And when they had passed over, they came to the land of Gennesareth, and went on shore. And when they came out of the vessel, immediately perceiving him, read more. running through all parts of that country, they began to carry about on couches those who were afflicted with diseases, wherever they heard that he was. And wherever they entered into villages or cities, or country places, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch, if but the fringe on his garment; and as many as touched it, were cured.
IN those days the multitude being exceedingly great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus calling his disciples to him, said unto them, I have compassion on the multitude, for they have stayed with me already three days, and have nothing to eat: read more. and if I send them away fasting to their houses, they will faint on the road; for many of them came from a great distance. His disciples answered him, Whence can a man here in the desert satisfy these with bread? And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven. And he commanded the multitude to recline in order on the ground: and taking the seven loaves, having given thanks he brake them, and gave to his disciples, that they should set before the people; and they distributed them to the multitude. And they had a few small fishes; and blessing, he commanded to set these also before them. And they did eat and were filled and they took up what remained of the fragments, seven baskets. And the persons who had eaten were about four thousand: and he sent them away.
And six days after Jesus taketh with him Peter and James and John, only, and carrieth them up with him into an exceeding high mountain in great privacy; and was transfigured before them. His garments became glistering, exceeding white, like snow; such as no fuller upon earth can whiten. read more. And there appeared to him Elias with Moses: and they were conversing with Jesus. Then Peter addressing him, said unto him, Master, it is desirable for us to be here: and let us erect three tents, one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. For he knew not what he should say: for they were very much affrighted. And there came a cloud overshadowing them: and there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him. And instantly looking round, they saw no man any longer with them, but Jesus only. And as they were coming down from the mountain, he strictly charged them, that they should tell no man what they had seen, till after the Son of man should have arisen from the dead. And they caught at that word, considering among themselves what this rising from the dead could mean.
AND when he drew nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, to the mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go into the village opposite to you: and immediately as you enter it, you will find a foal tied, on which no man yet hath rode; loose him, and bring him hither. read more. And if any man say to you, Why do ye this? say, That the Lord hath need of it; and immediately he will send it hither. And they went, and found the foal tied to a gate without, where two ways met; and they untie him. Then some of those who stood by, said unto them, What are ye about, untying the colt? Then they said unto them, as Jesus commanded them: and they permitted them to do it. And they brought the colt to Jesus, and put on him their garments; and he rode upon it. And multitudes spread their garments on the road: and others cut off boughs from the trees, and strewed them on the road. And they who went before, and who followed after, cried, saying, Hosanna: blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that is coming in the name of the Lord: hosanna in the highest. And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and looking round about upon all things, it being now even-tide, he departed to Bethany with the twelve. And on the morrow, as they were coming out of Bethany, he was hungry: and seeing a fig-tree at a distance, full of leaves, he went to it, expecting probably that he might find some fruit upon it: and when he came to it, he found none, only leaves: for it was not a [good] season for figs. And Jesus spake and said to it, Let no man eat fruit from thee henceforth for ever. And his disciples heard him. And they came to Jerusalem and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to cast out those who sold and bought in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold doves; and would not suffer that any person should carry a vessel through the temple. And he taught them, saying, Is it not written, that "My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations?" but ye have made it a den of thieves. And the scribes and chief priests heard him, and sought how they might destroy him: for they were afraid of him, because all the people were exceedingly struck with his teaching,
NOW the passover and the feast of unleavened bread were but two days distant; and the chief priests, and the scribes, sought how they might seize him by craft, and kill him. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be a commotion among the people.
Glory in the highest heavens to God! and upon earth, peace! towards men complacence.
And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem, according to the custom of the feast. And when they had concluded the days, as they were returning, the child Jesus remained at Jerusalem, and Joseph and his mother knew it not: read more. but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey; and they sought him among their relations and acquaintances; and not finding him, they returned to Jerusalem in search of him. And it came to pass after three days, they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions.
And he came to Nazareth, where he was brought up; and he went, according to his usual custom, into the synagogue on the sabbath-day, and rose up to read. And there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah: and unrolling the volume, he found the passage where it is written, read more. "The spirit of the Lord is upon me, for the work whereunto he hath anointed me; he hath sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor; to heal the contrite in heart; to proclaim liberty to the captives; and restore sight to the blind; to send forth the bruised free from bonds; to publish the acceptable year of the Lord." And rolling up the volume, he gave it to the attendant officer, and sat down. And the eyes of all who were in the synagogue were attentively fixed on him. And he began to say to them, To day this scripture is fulfilled in your ears. And all concurred in their testimony to him, and marvelled at the gracious words which proceeded from his mouth. And they said, Is not this the son of Joseph? And he said unto them, Ye will probably say to me this parable, Physician, heal thyself! the works which we have heard to have been performed by thee at Capernaum, do the like here in thy own country. But he said, Verily, I say unto you, that no prophet is acceptable in his own country. Now I tell you of a certainty, that there were many widows in the days of Elias, in Israel, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, so that a grievous famine was upon all the land. And unto none of them was Elias sent, but unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, to a widow woman. And many lepers were in Israel in the days of the prophet Elisha, and no one of them was cleansed, but Naaman the Syrian. And they were all filled with rage in the synagogue, when they heard these observations: and rising up, dragged him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill, on which their city was built, in order to cast him down headlong: but he passing through the midst of them, went away.
And coming down with them, he stood on a level spot: and the crowd of his disciples, and a vast multitude of people from all Judea and Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, who came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases; and they who were disturbed with unclean spirits: and they were cured. read more. And all the multitude strove to touch him, for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all. And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, Blessed are ye poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. Blessed are ye who hunger now, for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now, for ye shall laugh. Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them, and shall revile you, and shall cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy; for, lo! your reward is great in heaven: for after the same manner did your fathers to the prophets. But wo unto you who are rich! for ye have received your consolation. Wo unto you who are full! for ye shall hunger. Wo unto you who laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep. Wo unto you, when men shall speak well of you! for just so did their fathers of the false prophets. But I say to you who hear, Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you; bless those who curse you, and pray for those who wantonly insult you. To him that smiteth thee on the cheek, offer the other also; and from him who would take from thee thy cloak, withhold not thy coat also. And give to every one that asketh thee; and from him who would take thy goods, demand them not again. And as ye would that men should do unto you, do ye also to them in like manner. And if ye love them that love you, what thanks are due to you? for even sinners love those who love them. And if ye do good to them who do good to you, what thanks have ye? do not even sinners the same thing? And if ye lend to those, from whom ye hope to receive back again, what thanks are due to you? for sinners lend to sinners, that they may receive an equivalent. But love your enemies, and do good and lend, hoping for nothing in return: and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Most High; for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the wicked. Be ye therefore compassionate, as also your Father is compassionate. And judge not, that ye be not judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: give, and there shall be given unto you; good measure pressed down, and shook, and running over, shall they give into your lap. For with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured back to you again. And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? will they not both fall into the pit? The disciple is not above his teacher; but every one who is completely taught shall be as his master. But why beholdest thou the mote which is in thy brother's eye, but observest not the beam which is in thine own eye? Or how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, permit me to take off the mote which is on thine eye, not seeing thyself the beam in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite! cast out the beam which is in thine eye, and then shalt thou see distinctly to take off the mote which is in thy brother's eye. For there is no good tree which produceth fruit of a bad quality; neither doth a tree of a bad sort produce good fruit. Every tree is known by its own peculiar fruit. For men do not gather figs from off thorns, nor do they gather from the bramble a bunch of grapes. A good man, out of the good treasure of his heart, produceth what is good; and a wicked man, from the evil treasure in his heart, produceth that which is evil: for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say? Every one who cometh to me, and heareth my words, and puts them in practice, I will shew you to whom he is like: he is like to a man, building a house, who digged, and sunk deep, and laid the foundation on a rock; and when there was a flood, the river rushed violently against that house, and was not of force to shake it, for it was founded on a rock. But he that heareth, and doth not practice, is like a man who built his house on the earth without a foundation; against which the river rushed violently, and immediately it fell; and the crash of the fall of that house was great.
And it came to pass, as the days hastened to their period when he should be received up [to glory], that he resolutely set his face to go to Jerusalem;
THEN after these things the Lord appointed other seventy persons also, and sent them, two and two before his face, into every city and place, whither he himself designed to go. He said therefore unto them, The harvest indeed is plenteous, but the labourers few: pray ye therefore to the Lord of the harvest, that he would send out labourers into his harvest. read more. Go forth! behold, I send you out as lambs in the midst of wolves. Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor sandals: and stay to salute no man on the road. And into whatever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. And if the Son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it; but if not, it shall return back to you again. And in the same family abide, eating and drinking such as they have: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not about from house to house. And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they welcome you, eat whatever is set before you: and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go out into the streets of it, and say, Even the dust of your city, which sticks to us, we shake off against you: nevertheless this know, that the kingdom of God is come near to you. Now I tell you, that it shall be more tolerable for Sodom in that day, than for that city. Wo to thee Chorazin! wo to thee Bethsaida! for if the miracles which have been done in thee, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, long ago sitting in sackcloth and ashes, would they have repented. But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you. And thou Capernaum, which hast been lifted up to heaven, shalt be cast down to hell. He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me; and he that despiseth me, despiseth Him that sent me.
AND on the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: So Jesus also, and his disciples, were invited to the marriage. read more. And the wine being exhausted, the mother of Jesus saith to him, They have no more wine. Jesus saith unto her, What is that to me and thee, woman? my hour is not yet come. His mother saith to the waiters, Whatsoever he orders you, do it. Now there stood there six large stone jars, for the customary purifying ablution of the Jews, containing two or three baths each. Jesus saith to them, Fill these jars with water. And they filled them to the brim. And he said unto them, Draw out now, and carry to the president of the table. So they carried it. And when the president of the table had tasted the water become wine, and knew not whence it came: (but the waiters knew, who drew the water;) the president of the table called the bridegroom, and saith to him, Every man at first produces the good wine; and after men have drunk plentifully, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept back the good wine until now. This beginning of miracles Jesus wrought in Cana of Galilee, and displayed his glory; and his disciples believed on him.
And the passover of the Jews was nigh, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. And he found in the temple those who sold oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the moneychangers seated: read more. and having made a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and scattered the money of the exchangers, and overturned the tables; and said to those who sold doves, Take these hence; make not my Father's house a house of merchandise. Then the disciples remembered that it was written, "The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." The Jews then addressed him, and said to him, What miracle shewest thou, seeing thou actest thus? Jesus answered and said to them, Pull down this temple, and in three days I will rear it up again. Then said the Jews, This temple has been forty-six years in building, and canst thou rear it up in three days? Now he had spoken with reference to the temple of his own body. When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had spoken thus unto them; and they believed the scriptures, and the word which Jesus had spoken.
And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.
Then was the feast of dedication at Jerusalem, and it was winter. And Jesus was walking in the temple, in Solomon's portico. read more. Then the Jews came about him, and said to him, How long dost thou keep our soul in suspense? If thou art the Messiah, tell us plainly. Jesus answered them; I told you, and ye believed not: the works which I do in the name of my Father, they bear witness of me. But ye believe not, for ye are not of my sheep, as I told you. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto them everlasting life and they shall never perish to eternity, and no person shall pluck them out of my hand. My Father, who gave them to me, is greater than all and no one shall pluck them out of my Father's hand. I and my Father are one. Then the Jews again brought stones, in order to stone him. Jesus said unto them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which work of these are ye going to stone me? The Jews answered him, For a good work we do not stone thee; but for blasphemy; and that thou, being merely a man, makest thyself God. Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, "I said ye are gods?" If he called those gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken; do ye say of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest because I said, I am the Son of God? If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not. But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know, and believe, that the Father is in me, and I in him. Then sought they again to apprehend him and he departed out of their reach, and went again beyond Jordan, unto the place where John at first baptised; and there he abode. And many came to him, and said, That John indeed performed no miracle: but all things whatsoever John spake of this man were true. And many believed on him there.
NOW there was a sick man, Lazarus, of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. (It was the Mary who had anointed the Lord with the balm, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) read more. The sisters therefore sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. When Jesus heard it, he said, This sickness is not for death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby. Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. Then, though he heard he was ill, yet notwithstanding he abode in the same place where he was two days. But after that he saith to his disciples, Let us go again into Judea. The disciples say unto him, Rabbi, the Jews have just now sought to stone thee; and art thou going thither again? Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he doth not stumble, because he seeth the light of this world. But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light with him. These things said he: and after that he saith to them, Our friend Lazarus is asleep; but I go to waken him up. Then said his disciples, Lord, if he is asleep, he will recover. Now Jesus had spoken of his death: but they apprehended that he spake of taking rest in sleep. Then Jesus therefore told them plainly, Lazarus is dead. And I rejoice on your account that I was not there, in order that ye may believe; but let us go to him. Then said Thomas, (called Didymus, the twin,) to his fellow-disciples, Let us go too, that we may die with him. Then Jesus, when he came; found that he had already lain in the tomb four days. Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off: and many of the Jews had come with the women who were about Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. Then Martha, when she heard that Jesus was coming, met him: but Mary sat in the house. And Martha said to Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. But even now I know, that whatsoever things thou shalt ask of God, God will give thee. Jesus saith to her, Thy brother shall rise again. Martha saith to him, I know that he shall rise at the resurrection in the last day. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and every one who is alive, and believeth in me, shall never die to eternity. Believest thou this? She saith to him, Yes, Lord I believe that thou art the Messiah, the Son of God, who cometh into the world. So when she had thus spoken, she went away, and called her sister Mary privately, saying, The Master is near at hand, and calleth for thee. As soon as she heard it, she rose hastily, and came to him.
As soon as she heard it, she rose hastily, and came to him. Now Jesus was not yet come into the village, but was on the spot where Martha had met him. read more. Then the Jews who were with her in the house, and comforting her, observing Mary, that she rose up hastily, and went out, followed her, saying, She is going to the tomb, to weep there. When therefore Mary was come where Jesus was, beholding him, she fell at his feet, saying to him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother would not have died! When Jesus then saw her weeping, and all the Jews who came with her lamenting, he groaned in spirit, and was himself greatly agitated: and he said, Where have ye laid him? They say to him, Lord, come and see. Jesus wept. Then said the Jews, Behold, how he loved him! But some of them said, Could not this man, who openeth the eyes of the blind, have caused that this person should not have died? Then Jesus again groaning in himself, cometh to the sepulchre. It was an excavation, and a stone lay upon it. Jesus saith, Remove the stone. The sister of the deceased, Martha, said to him, Lord, he is by this time putrid: for he hath been dead four days. Jesus saith unto her, Did I not tell thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shalt see the glory of God? Then they removed the stone where the deceased was lying. And Jesus lifted his eyes upwards, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me! And I knew that thou always dost hear me: but for the sake of the multitude standing by I spake, that they may believe that thou hast sent me. And when he had thus spoken, with a loud voice he cried, Lazarus, come forth! And the deceased came forth, his feet and his hands wrapped with the linen swathes; and his face bound round with a napkin. Jesus saith to them, Loose him, and let him go!
Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews, but went thence into the country bordering on the desert, to a city called Ephraim, and there he abode with his disciples.
Now there were certain Greeks among those who went up to worship at the feast: these then came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida, of Galilee, and they asked him, saying, Sir, we wish to see Jesus. read more. Philip comes and speaks to Andrew: and again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus. Then Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat falling on the earth undergo a deathlike change, it abideth single: but if it [thus] die, it beareth abundant produce. He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world, shall preserve it to life eternal. If a man will be my servant, let him follow me; and where I am, there also shall my servant be: and if any man serve me, him will my Father honour. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name! Then came a voice from heaven, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. The multitude that stood by, and heard it, said that it was thunder: others said, An angel hath spoken to him. Jesus answered and said, This voice came not for my sake, but for your's. Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the ruler of this world be ejected out [of it]. And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. And this he said, signifying by what death he should die. Then the multitude answered him, We have heard out of the law, that the Messiah abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, That the Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man? Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest the darkness overtake you: he that walketh in darkness, knoweth not even whither he is going. While ye have the light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of the light. These things spake Jesus, and going away, concealed himself from them.
and dragging him out of the city, stoned him: and the witnesses laid down their garments at the feet of a young man, named Saul. And they stoned Stephen, in the act of prayer, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit! read more. Then falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, Lord, impute not to them this sin! And thus speaking, fell asleep.
BUT Saul was delighted with his execution. Now on that very day commenced a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and all, besides the apostles, were dispersed through the regions of Judea and Samaria. Then some pious men assembling, carried Stephen to his grave, and made great lamentation over him. read more. But Saul ravaged the church, entering into the houses, and dragging men and women, cast them into prison. Those therefore who were dispersed, travelled through the country, preaching the word.
But as they went on the road, they came to some water: and the eunuch said, Here is water, what forbids my being baptised?
But when Saul was come to Jerusalem, he attempted to join the disciples: and they were all afraid of him, not crediting that he was a disciple.
But when Saul was come to Jerusalem, he attempted to join the disciples: and they were all afraid of him, not crediting that he was a disciple. Then Barnabas taking him by the hand, brought him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how boldly he had preached at Damascus in the name of Jesus.
Then Barnabas taking him by the hand, brought him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how boldly he had preached at Damascus in the name of Jesus. And he was with them coming in, and going out at Jerusalem:
And he was with them coming in, and going out at Jerusalem: and speaking boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus. And he talked and disputed with the Grecian proselytes: but they made an attempt to murder him. read more. Then the brethren, when they knew it brought him down to Caesarea, and sent him off to Tarsus.
But Peter putting them all out, fell upon his knees, and prayed; and turning to the body, said, Tabitha, arise! And she opened her eyes: and when she saw Peter, she sat up.
And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, who, when they arrived at Antioch, spake to the Grecian proselytes, preaching the Lord Jesus.
and having found him, he brought him to Antioch. And it came to pass, that during a whole year they were jointly employed in that church, and taught a vast multitude, and they called for the first time in Antioch the disciples Christians.
which also they did, sending it off to the presbyters by the hand of Barnabas and Saul.
And he slew James the brother of John with a sword. And seeing how agreeable this was to the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter also. (Then were the days of unleavened bread.) read more. Whom having apprehended, he put him in prison, delivering him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep guard over him; intending after the Passover to bring him forth to the people [for execution]. So then Peter was kept in prison: but fervent prayer was offered up by the church to God for him. Now when Herod was going to bring him forth, the same night was Peter fast asleep between the two soldiers, fastened to them with two chains: and the guards before the door kept the prison. And, lo! an angel of the Lord stood there, and light glared through the apartment: then with a stroke on Peter's side, he roused him up, and said, Arise quickly. And his chains fell from his hands. And the angel said to him, Gird thyself up, and bind on thy sandals. And he did so. And he said unto him, Wrap thyself in thy mantle, and follow me. And going out, he followed him; and knew not that it was a reality which was done by the angel; but he supposed he saw a vision. So passing through the first ward and the second, they came to the iron door which leads into the city, which opened to them spontaneously: and being come out, they walked forward through one street; and immediately the angel departed from him. And Peter coming to himself, said, Now I know assuredly, that the Lord hath sent his angel, and hath delivered me from the hand of Herod, and all the eager expectation of the people of the Jews. And after considering with himself, he went to the house of Mary the mother of John, who is surnamed Mark; where many were thronged together, and praying. Peter then knocking at the door of the gatetway, there came a damsel to ask who was there, named Rhoda. And well knowing Peter's voice, she opened not the door for joy; but running in, told that Peter was standing before the door. But they said, Thou art raving. But she confidently persisted that it was so. Then they said, It is his angel. But Peter continued knocking: and they opened the door and saw him, and were astonished. Then beckoning with the hand that they should be silent, he informed them in what manner the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And he said, Tell James and the brethren these things. And departing thence he went into another place. Now when the day broke, there was no small stir among the soldiers, what could possibly become of Peter. And Herod sought him out earnestly, but not being able to find him, after having examined the guards strictly, he commanded them to be executed. And going down from Jerusalem to Caesarea, took up his abode there.
But instantly the angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave not the glory to God: and being devoured with worms, he expired.
And there they abode no inconsiderable time with the disciples.
There being therefore no small contention and dispute maintained by Paul and Barnabas against them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain others of their body, should go up to the apostles and presbyters at Jerusalem, for the decision of this question.
And in accord with this are the words of the prophets; as it is written,
And he sat down there a year and six months, teaching among them the word of God.
And landing at Cesarea, he went up, and having saluted the church [at Jerusalem], he went down to Antioch.
And entering into the synagogue, he spake boldly during three months, reasoning and persuading the things that concern the kingdom of God.
And this he did for two years; so that all who dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.
And there happened at that time no small disturbance about this way.
And passing through those parts, and having exhorted them with much discourse, he went into Greece.
And we sailed from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came to them to Troas after five days; where we stayed seven days. And on the first day of the week, when the disciples were assembled to break bread, Paul preached unto them (ready to depart on the morrow), and extended his discourse until midnight.
And sailing from thence, on the following day we advanced over against Chios; and the next day we touched at Samos, and staying at Trogyllium, the day following we came to Miletus.
So he sent to Ephesus from Miletus, and called the presbyters of the church to attend him.
And finding disciples, we tarried there seven days: and they said to Paul, by the Spirit, that he should not go up unto Jerusalem.
And on the morrow we who were Paul's companions departed with him, and went to Caesarea; and entering into the house of Philip the evangelist (who was one of the seven deacons), we abode with him.
And when we arrived at Jerusalem, the brethren received us with delight.
But as the seven days were now drawing to their period, some Jews from Asia seeing him in the temple, excited all the populace to tumult, and laid hands upon him,
And calling to him two certain persons of the centurions, he said, Get ready two hundred soldiers to go to Caesarea, and seventy horsemen, and two hundred spearmen, at the third hour of the night;
But when two years were ended, Felix had Portius Festus appointed for his successor: and willing to curry favour with the Jews, Felix left Paul in chains.
And after staying with them more than ten days, he went down to Caesarea; and on the morrow seated on the bench, commanded Paul to be brought.
For indeed if I have committed any crime, or done aught worthy of death, I object not to be put to death: but if there is nothing in those things whereof they accuse me, no man dare gratify them by abandoning me to them.
On the morrow therefore, when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with a very splendid retinue, and were entered into the place of audience, with the military tribunes, and the men of superior eminence in the city, then at the order of Festus Paul was produced.
NOW as it was determined that we should sail for Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners to a centurion named Julius, of the Augustan cohort.
And when we were come to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard; but he permitted Paul to have an apartment by himself, with a soldier only who guarded him. Now it came to pass that after three days Paul called together the principal persons of the Jews. And when they were assembled, he said unto them, Men and brethren, though I have done nothing contrary to the people and the customs of our ancestors, yet have I been delivered up a prisoner into the hands of the Romans.
I had no test in my spirit on my not finding there Titus my brother: so taking my leave of them I went forth unto Macedonia.
But when it pleased God, who selected me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace, to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach the glad tidings of him to the nations, immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood, read more. nor went up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me; but I went away into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus. Afterwards at the expiration of three years I went up unto Jerusalem to pay a visit to Peter, and I abode with him fifteen days.
Afterwards at the expiration of three years I went up unto Jerusalem to pay a visit to Peter, and I abode with him fifteen days.
Afterwards at the expiration of three years I went up unto Jerusalem to pay a visit to Peter, and I abode with him fifteen days.
As I exhorted thee to abide at Ephesus when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest enjoin certain persons to introduce no different doctrine,
For this purpose I left thee behind me at Crete, that thou mightest direct the regulations which remained to be executed, and that thou shouldest appoint presbyters in every city, as I charged thee to do:
It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. The subject naturally divides itself into-- I. The history of the written text; II. The history of the printed text. I. THE HISTORY OF THE WRITTEN TEXT.--
1. The early history of the apostolic writings externally, as far as it can be traced, is the same as that of other contemporary books. St. Paul, like Cicero or Pliny often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation "with his own hand."
The original copies seem to have soon perished.
2. In the natural course of things the apostolic autographs would be likely to perish soon. The material which was commonly used for letters the papyrus paper, to which St. John incidentally alludes.
comp. 3Joh 1:13 was singularly fragile, and even the stouter kinds, likely to be used for the historical books, were not fitted to bear constant use. The papyrus fragments which have come down to the present time have been preserved under peculiar circumstances as at Herculaneum or in the Egyptian tombs.
3. In the time of the Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303, copies of the Christian Scriptures were sufficiently numerous to furnish a special object for persecutors. Partly, perhaps, owing to the destruction thus caused, but still more from the natural effects of time. no MS. of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains but though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings.
4. In addition to the later MSS. the earliest versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. Only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance.
5. Several very important conclusions follow from this earliest appearance of textual criticism. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. History affords a trace of the pure apostolic originals. Again, from the preservation of the first variations noticed, which are often extremely minute, in one or more of the primary documents still left, we may be certain that no important changes have been made in the sacred text which we cannot now detect.
6. Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. A.D. 220) and Origen (A.D. 1842~4). From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible store house for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen's time the variations in the New Testament MSS. were beginning to lead to the formation of specific groups of copies.
7. The most ancient MSS. and versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. These cannot have had their source later than the beginning of the third century, and probably were much earlier. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of MSS., which as he remarks, must have arisen before the first versions were made. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. According to him two distinct recensions of the Gospels existed at the beginning of the third century-the Alexandrine and the Western.
8. From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. The quotations of Dionsius Alex. (A.D. 264), Petrus Alex. (cir. A.D. 312), Methodius (A.D. 311) and Eusebius (A.D. 340) confirm the prevalence of the ancient type of tent; but the public establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire necessarily led to important changes. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly MSS. As a natural consequence the rude Hellenistic forms gave way before the current Greek, and at the same time it is reasonable to believe that smoother and fuller constructions were substituted for the rougher turns of the apostolic language. In this way the foundation of the Byzantine text was laid. Meanwhile the multiplication of copies in Africa and Syria was checked by Mohammedan conquests.
9. The appearance of the oldest MSS. have been already described. The MSS. of the fourth century, of which Codex Vaticanus may be taken as a type present a close resemblance to these. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript. A small interval serves as a simple punctuation; and there are no accents or breathings by the hand of the first writer, though these have been added subsequently. Uncial writing continued in general use till the middle of the tenth century. From the eleventh century downward cursive writing prevailed. The earliest cursive biblical MS, is dated 964 A.D. The MSS. of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries abound in the contractions which afterward passed into the early printed books. The oldest MSS. are written on the thinnest and finest vellum; in later copies the parchment is thick and coarse. Papprus was very rarely used after the ninth century. In the tenth century cotton paper was generally employed in Europe; and one example at least occurs of its use in the ninth century. In the twelfth century the common linen or rag paper came into use. One other kind of material requires notice --re-dressed parchment, called palimpsests. Even at a very early period the original text of a parchment MS. was often erased, that the material might be used afresh. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical MSS. which had been once obliterated for the transcription of other works, have been recovered.
10. The division of the Gospels into "chapters" must have come into general use some time before the fifth century. The division of the Acts and Epistles into chapters came into use at a later time. It is commonly referred to Euthalius, who, however, says that he borrowed the divisions of the Pauline Epistles from an earlier father and there is reason to believe that the division of the Acts and Catholic Epistles which he published was originally the work of Pamphilus the martyr. The Apocalypse was divided into sections by Andreas of Caesarea about A.D. 500. The titles of the sacred books are from their nature additions to the original text. The distinct names of the Gospels imply a collection, and the titles of the Epistles are notes by the possessors, and not addresses by the writers.
11. Very few MSS. certain the whole New Testament --twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. Besides the MSS. of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services.
12. The number of uncial MSS. remaining. though great when compared with the ancient MSS. extent of other writings, is inconsiderable. Tischendorf reckons forty in the Gospels. In these must be added Cod. Sinait., which is entire; a new MS. of Tischendorf, which is nearly entire; and Cod. Zacynth., Which contains considerable fragments of St. Luke. In the Acts there are nine: in the Catholic Epistles five; in th
But this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.
And he said to them, this kind can be driven out by nothing but prayer and fasting.
Now being arisen early, on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
The salutation of Paul with mine own hand.
The salutation of Paul with mine own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you. Amen.
how much more shall the blood of Christ, who, by the eternal Spirit, offered up himself in sacrifice without blemish to God, cleanse our conscience from dead works, that we may perform divine service to the living God?
Having many things to write unto you, I would not do it with paper and ink; but I hope to come unto you, and speak mouth to mouth, that our joy may be complete.