2 occurrences in 2 dictionaries

Reference: Alliances


Framed by dividing a victim into two parts, between which the contracting parties passed, praying the similar cutting up of him who should violate the treaty (Ge 15:10; Jer 34:2-18)). Hence the Hebrew and Greek for to make a treaty is "to cut" it. Forbidden with the doomed Canaanites (De 7:2; Jg 2:2). But peaceable relations with other nations as distinguished from copying their idolatries, were encouraged (De 2:25; 15:6; Ge 27:29). Solomon's alliance with Tyre for building the temple and other purposes was altogether right (1Ki 5:2-12; 9:27); and Tyre is subsequently reproved for not remembering the brotherly covenant (Am 1:9). But alliances by marriage with idolaters are reprobated as incentives to latitudinarianism first and at last, to conformity with paganism (De 7:3-6).

Solomen's alliance with Pharaoh by marriage was the precursor of importing horses contrary to the law, leaning too much on human forces, and of contracting alliances with Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Sidonian, and Hittite wives, who seduced him from God. Hence the care to guard against the same evil, at the return from Babylon (Ezra 9; 10; Nehemiah 13; Mal 2:11-17). When pagans renounced idolatry for Israel's God, Israelites might lawfully wed them, as Rahab, Ruth, Zipporah. Shishak's invasion of Rehoboam's kingdom was probably due to Shishak's alliance with Jeroboam of Israel (2 Chronicles 12; 1Ki 14:25, etc.). Ahaz' appeal to Tiglath Pileser for help against Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria opened the way to Assyrian and Babylonian predominance (2 Kings 16). Asa's alliance with Benhadad against Baasha was the turning point from good to evil in his life (2Ch 14:15; 1Ki 15:16, etc.).

Jehoshaphat's alliance with ungodly Ahab and Ahaziah his son was the only blot on his character, and involved him in loss and reproof from God (2 Chronicles 18; 2Ch 19:2; 20:35-37). Jehoshaphat's son Jehoram's marriage with Ahab's daughter, Athaliah, was fatal to him and to Ahaziah and his other sons except Joash (2 Chronicles 21; 22). Hoshea's alliance with So or Sabacho of Egypt was his encouragement to rebel against Assyria, and brought on him the overthrow of Israel by Shalmaneser (2Ki 17:4). Hezekiah was tempted to lean on Egypt against the Assyrian Sennacherib (Isa 30:2), and Tirhakah of Ethiopia did make a diversion in his favor (2Ki 19:9). Josiah on the other hand was Assyria's ally against Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, and fell a victim to meddling in the world's quarrels (2Ch 35:20-25).

Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, leant on Egypt, and Pharaoh Hophra raised the siege of Jerusalem for a time; but Nebuchadnezzar returned and took it (Jer 37:1-5,21). A "covenant of salt" (Nu 18:19; 2Ch 13:5) expresses one indissoluble and incorruptible, as salt was sprinkled on the victim, implying incorruption and sincerity (Le 2:13). A pillar was sometimes set up (Ge 31:45-52). Presents were sent by the seeker of the alliance (1Ki 15:18; Isa 30:6). Violation of it brought down divine wrath, even when made with a pagan (Jos 9:18,2 Samuel 21; Eze 17:16).

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On the first establishment of the Hebrews in Palestine no connections were formed between them and the surrounding nations. But with the extension of their power under the kings alliances became essential to the security of their commerce. Solomon concluded two important treaties exclusively for commercial purposes the first with Hiram king of Tyre

1Ki 5:2-12; 9:27

the second with a Pharaoh, king of Egypt.

1Ki 10:28-29

When war broke out between Amaziah I and Jeroboam II, a coalition was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah on the one side, and Ahaz and Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, on the other.

2Ki 16:5-9

The formation of an alliance was attended with various religious rites. A victim was slain and divided into two parts, between which the contracting parties passed.

Ge 15:10

Generally speaking the oath alone is mentioned in the contracting of alliances, either between nations,

Jos 9:15

or individuals.

Ge 25:28; 31:53; 1Sa 20:17; 2Ki 11:4

The event was celebrated by a feast. Gene l.c.;

Ex 24:11; 2Sa 3:12,20

Salt, as symbolical of fidelity, was used on these occasions. Occasionally a pillar or a heap of stones was set up as a memorial of the alliance.

Ge 31:52

Presents were also sent by the parties soliciting the alliance.

1Ki 15:18; Isa 30:6

; 1 Macc 16:18. The fidelity of the Jews to their engagements was conspicuous at all periods of their history,

Jos 9:18

and any breach of covenant was visited with very severe punishment.

2Sa 21:1; Eze 17:16

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