7 occurrences in 7 dictionaries

Reference: Satan


Signifies, properly, adversary, enemy, 1Ki 11:14; Ps 109:6, and is so applied by Jesus to Peter, Mt 16:23; Mr 8:33. Hence it is used particularly of the grand adversary of souls, the devil, the prince of the fallen angels, the accuser and calumniator of men before God, Job 1:7,12; Zec 3:1-2; Re 12:10. He seduces them to sin, 1Ch 21:1; Lu 22:31; and is thus the author of that evil, both physical and moral, by which the human race is afflicted, especially of those vicious propensities and wicked actions which are productive of so much misery, and also of death itself, Lu 13:16; Heb 2:14. Hence Satan is represented both as soliciting men to commit sin, and as the source, the efficient cause of impediments which are thrown in the way of the Christians religion, or which are designed to diminish its efficacy in reforming the hearts and lives of men, and inspiring them with the hope of future bliss, Mt 4:10; Joh 13:27; Ro 16:20; Eph 2:2. See DEVIL.

The "synagogue of Satan," Re 2:9,13, probably denotes the unbelieving Jews, the false zealots for the Law of Moses, who at the beginning were the most eager persecutors of the Christians. They were very numerous at Smyrna, to which church John writes.

See Verses Found in Dictionary


adversary; accuser. When used as a proper name, the Hebrew word so rendered has the article "the adversary" (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7). In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos, or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times.

He is also called "the dragon," "the old serpent" (Re 12:9; 20:2); "the prince of this world" (Joh 12:31; 14:30); "the prince of the power of the air" (Eph 2:2); "the god of this world" (2Co 4:4); "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" (Eph 2:2). The distinct personality of Satan and his activity among men are thus obviously recognized. He tempted our Lord in the wilderness (Mt 4:1-11). He is "Beelzebub, the prince of the devils" (Mt 12:24). He is "the constant enemy of God, of Christ, of the divine kingdom, of the followers of Christ, and of all truth; full of falsehood and all malice, and exciting and seducing to evil in every possible way." His power is very great in the world. He is a "roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour" (1Pe 5:8). Men are said to be "taken captive by him" (2Ti 2:26). Christians are warned against his "devices" (2Co 2:11), and called on to "resist" him (Jas 4:7). Christ redeems his people from "him that had the power of death, that is, the devil" (Heb 2:14). Satan has the "power of death," not as lord, but simply as executioner.

See Verses Found in Dictionary


("adversary".) Four times in Old Testament as a proper name (Job 1:6,12; 2:1; Zec 3:1, with ha-, the article); without it in 1Ch 21:1,25 times in New Testament; the Devil also 25 times; "the prince of this world" three times, for Satan had some mysterious connection with this earth and its animals before man's appearance. (See DEVIL.) Death already had affected the pre-Adamic animal kingdom, as geology shows. Satan had already fallen, and his fall perhaps affected this earth and its creatures, over which he may originally in innocence have been God's vicegerent, hence his envy of man his successor in the vicegerency (Ge 1:26; 3:1-14). "The winked one" six times; "the tempter" twice. "The old serpent, the devil, and Satan, who deceiveth the whole world" (Re 12:9; 20:15). In Job his power is only over outward circumstances, by God's permission. Instead of being a rival power to good and God, as in the Persian belief as to Ormuzd and Ahriman, he is subordinate; his malicious temptation of David was overruled to work out Jehovah's anger against Israel (2Sa 24:1; 1Ch 21:1).

As the judicial adversary of God's people he accuses them before God, but is silenced by Jehovah their Advocate (Zec 3:1-2; 1Pe 5:8; Ps 109:6,31; 1Jo 2:1-2). The full revelation of "the strong man armed" was only when "the stronger" was revealed (Lu 11:21-23). He appears as personal tempter of Jesus Christ. (See JESUS CHRIST.) The Zendavesta has an account of the temptation in Eden nearest that of Genesis, doubtless derived from the primitive tradition. Christ's words of Satan are (Joh 8:44), "ye are of your father the devil; he was a murderer (compare as to his instigating Cain 1Jo 3:9-12) from the beginning and abode not in the truth. When he speaketh a lie he speaketh of his own, for he is a liar and the father of it." He is a "spirit," "prince of the powers of the air," and "working in the children of disobedience" (Eph 2:2). "Prince of the demons" (Greek), at the head of an organized "kingdom" (Mt 12:24-26), with "his (subject) angels."

They "kept not their first estate but left their own habitation"; so God "hath reserved them in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day" (Jg 1:6). Again "God spared not the angels, but cast them into hell (Tartarus, the bottomless pit: Lu 8:31; Re 9:11), and delivered them to chains of darkness" (2Pe 2:4). Their final doom is Tartarus; meanwhile they roam in "the darkness of this world"; step by step they and Satan are being given up to Tartarus, until wholly bound there at last (Revelation 20). "The darkness of this world" (Eph 6:12) is their chain. They are free now to tempt and hurt only to the length of their chain; Re 12:7-9 describes not their original expulsion, but a further step in their fall, owing to Christ's ascension, namely, exclusion from access to accuse the saints before God (Job 1:11; Zechariah 3). Christ's ascension as our advocate took away the accuser's standing ground in heaven (compare Lu 10:18; Isa 14:12-15).

Pride was his "condemnation," and to it he tempts others, especially Christian professors (Ge 3:5; 1Ti 3:6). As love, truth, and holiness characterize God, so malice or hatred (the spring of murder), lying, and uncleanness characterize Satan (Joh 8:44; 1Jo 3:10-12). Disbelief of God is what first Satan tempts men to (Genesis 3); "IF Thou be the Son of God" was the dart he aimed at Christ in the wilderness temptation, and through human emissaries on the cross. Also pride and presumption (Mt 4:6). Restless energy, going to and fro as the "roaring lion"; subtle instilling of venom, gliding steadily on his victim, as the "serpent" or "dragon"; shameless lust (Job 1:7; Mt 12:43); so his victims (Isa 57:20). He steals away the good seed from the careless hearer (Mt 13:19), introduces "the children of the wicked one" into the church itself, the tares among and closely resembling outwardly the wheat (Mt 13:38-39).

His "power" is that of darkness, from which Christ delivers His saints; cutting off members from Christ's church is "delivering them to Satan" (1Co 5:5; 1Ti 1:20; Ac 26:18; Col 1:13). The Jews might have been "the church of God," but by unbelief became "the synagogue of Satan." His "throne" opposes Christ's heavenly throne (Re 4:2; 2:9-10,13). He has his "principalities and powers" in his organized kingdom, in mimicry of the heavenly (Ro 8:38; 1Co 15:24; Col 2:15; Eph 6:12). He instigates persecution, and is the real persecutor. He has "depths of Satan" in opposition to knowledge of "the deep things of God" (Re 2:24); men pruriently desire to know those depths, as Eve did. It is God's sole prerogative thoroughly to know evil without being polluted by it. Satan has "the power of death," because "the sting of death is sin" (1Co 15:56); Satan being author of sin is author of its consequence, death. God's law (Ge 2:17; Ro 6:23) makes death the executioner of sin, and man Satan's "lawful captive."

Jesus by His death gave death its deathblow and took the prey from the mighty; as David cut off Goliath's head with his own sword (Mt 12:29; Lu 10:19; Isa 49:24; 2Ti 1:10; Ps 8:2; Heb 2:14). "Christ ... through death ... destroy (katargeesee, "render powerless") him that had the power of death." Satan seeks to "get an advantage of" believers (2Co 2:11); he has "devices" (noeemata) and "wiles" (methodeias, "methodical stratagems") (Eph 6:11), and "snares" (1Ti 3:7), "transforming himself (Greek) into an angel of light," though "prince of darkness" (2Co 11:14; Lu 22:53; Eph 6:12). "Satan hinders" good undertakings by evil men (Ac 13:10; 17:13-14; 3:8-10), or even by "messengers of Satan," sicknesses, etc. (2Co 11:14; 12:7; 1Th 2:18; Lu 13:16). Satan works or energizes in and through antichrist (2Th 2:9; Re 13:2) in opposition to the Holy Spirit energizing in the church (Eph 1:19). The wanton turn aside from Christ the spouse after Satan the seducer (1Ti 5:11-15).

The believer's victory by "the God of peace bruising Satan" is foretold from the first (Ge 3:15; Ro 16:20). The opposition of Satan in spite of himself will be overruled to the believer's good, the latter thereby learning patience, submission, faith, and so his end being blessed, as in Job's case. Man can in God's strength "resist Satan" (Jas 4:7); by withholding consent of the will, man gives Satan no "place," room or scope (Eph 4:27). "The wicked one toucheth not" the saint, as he could not touch Christ (1Jo 5:18; Joh 14:30). Self restraint and watchfulness are our safeguards (1Pe 5:8).

Translate 2Ti 2:26 "that they may awake (ananeepsosin) ... being taken as saved captives by him ("the servant of the Lord", 2Ti 2:24; autou) so as to follow the will of Him" (ekeinou; God, 2Ti 2:25): ezogreemenoi, taken to be saved alive, instead of Satan's thrall unto death, brought to the willing "captivity of obedience" to Christ (2Co 10:5). So Jesus said to Peter (Lu 5:10), "henceforth thou shalt catch [unto "life" (zogron)] men." Satan in tempting Christ asserts his delegated rule over the kingdoms of this world, and Christ does not deny but admits it (Lu 4:6), "the prince of this world" (Joh 12:31; 14:30; 16:11; 2Co 4:4; Eph 6:12). Satan slanders God to man (Ge 3:1-5), as envious of man's happiness and unreasonably restraining his enjoyments; and man to God (Job 1:9-11; 2:4-5).

Satan tempts, but cannot force, man's will; grace can enable man to overcome (Jas 1:2-4; 1Co 10:13; Jas 4:7, etc.). Satan steals the good seed from the careless hearer (Jas 1:21) and implants tares (Mt 13:4,19,25,38). Satan thrusts into the mind impure thoughts amidst holy exercises; 1Co 7:5, "come together that Satan tempt you not because of your incontinency," i.e., Satan takes advantage of men's inability to restrain natural propensities. Satan tempted Judas (Lu 22:5; Joh 21:25), Peter (Lu 22:31), Ananias and Sapphire (Acts 5). Augustine's (De Civit. Dei, 22:1) opinion was that the redeemed were elected by God to fill up the lapsed places in the heavenly hierarchy, occasioned by the fall of Satan and his demons.

See Verses Found in Dictionary



1. In the OT.

See Verses Found in Dictionary



A name by which THE DEVIL, the great enemy of God and man, is designated. The name may be said to be the same in Hebrew, Greek, and English, and signifies 'adversary,' as the word is rendered in several places where other adversaries are alluded to: cf. Nu 22:22; 1Ki 11:14,23,25. It was Satan who at the outset deceived Eve, for it is clear that the dragon, the old serpent, the devil, and Satan all represent the same evil spirit. Re 20:2. Satan was the great adversary of God's people in O.T. times, 1Ch 21:1; the tempter of the Lord Jesus, who treated him as Satan; and is the tempter and adversary of the saints and of all mankind now. He endeavours to neutralise the effect of the gospel; catches away the good seed sown in the heart (Matt. 13), and blinds the minds of the unbelieving lest the light of the gospel of Christ's glory should shine to them. His efforts are frustrated by God or none would be saved.

Further, to counteract God's work, Satan has raised up heretics to mingle with the saints and to corrupt them by evil doctrine, as taught in the metaphor of the tares sown among the wheat. He goes about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour, but saints are told to resist him, and he will flee from them. The power of death, which Satan had, has been annulled by Christ in His death. Saints are warned against his devices, for he is transformed into an angel of light, a teacher of morality. God has provided complete armour for His saints in order that they may withstand him and all his wiles, and has given them the sword of the Spirit (the word of God), as a weapon of attack. Eph 6:11-18.

The origin of Satan is not definitely stated, but if Eze 28:12-19 refer to him, under the appellation of the king of Tyre (as was very early believed in the church, and may be correct), he is described as the anointed cherub that 'covereth;' all the precious stones and gold were also his covering, resplendent by reflected light; he had a place in Eden, the garden of God, and was upon the holy mountain of God. He was perfect in his ways from the day he was created, until iniquity was found in him. Tyre, in its worldly wisdom and beauty, is looked at morally as the creation of the prince and god of this world. He will eventually be cast out as profane and find his portion in the lake of fire.

In the Epistle of Jude, the act of Michael the archangel in reference to Satan is given as an example of restraint in speaking of dignities: he dared not bring a railing accusation against the devil, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." This implies that Satan had been set in dignity, which, though he had fallen, was still to be respected

See Verses Found in Dictionary



The word itself, the Hebrew satan, is simply an "adversary," and is so used in

1Sa 29:4; 2Sa 19:22; 1Ki 6:4; 11:14,23,25; Nu 22:22,33; Ps 109:6

This original sense is still found in our Lord's application of the name to St. Peter in

Mt 16:23

It is used as a proper name or title only four times in the Old Testament, vis. (with the article) in

Job 1:6,12; 2:1; Zec 2:1

and without the article in

1Ch 21:1

It is with the scriptural revelation on the subject that we are here concerned; and it is clear, from this simple enumeration of passages, that it is to be sought in the New rather than in the Old Testament. I. The personal existence of a spirit of evil is clearly revealed in Scripture; but the revelation is made gradually, in accordance with the progressiveness of God's method. In the first entrance of evil into the world, the temptation is referred only to the serpent. In the book of Job we find for the first time a distinct mention of "Satan" the "adversary" of Job. But it is important to remark the emphatic stress laid on his subordinate position, on the absence of all but delegated power, of all terror and all grandeur in his character. It is especially remarkable that no power of spiritual influence, but only a power over outward circumstances, is attributed to him. The captivity brought the Israelites face to face with the great dualism of the Persian mythology, the conflict of Ormuzd with Ahriman, the co-ordinate spirit of evil; but it is confessed by all that the Satan of Scripture bears no resemblance to the Persian Ahriman. His subordination and inferiority are as strongly marked as ever. The New Testament brings plainly forward the power and the influence of Satan, From the beginning of the Gospel, when he appears as the personal tempter of our Lord through all the Gospels, Epistles, and Apocalypse, it is asserted or implied, again and again, as a familiar and important truth. II. Of the nature and original state of Satan, little is revealed in Scripture. He is spoken of as a "spirit" in

Eph 2:2

as the prince or ruler of the "demons" in

Mt 12:24-26

and as having "angels" subject to him in

Mt 25:41; Re 12:7,9

The whole description of his power implies spiritual nature and spiritual influence. We conclude therefore that he was of angelic nature, a rational and spiritual creature, superhuman in power, wisdom and energy; and not only so, but an archangel, one of the "princes" of heaven. We cannot, of course, conceive that anything essentially and originally evil was created by God. We can only conjecture, therefore, that Satan is a fallen angel, who once had a time of probation, but whose condemnation is now irrevocably fixed. As to the time cause and manner of his fall Scripture tells us scarcely anything; but it describes to us distinctly the moral nature of the evil one. The ideal of goodness is made up of the three great moral attributes of God --love, truth, and purity or holiness; combined with that spirit which is the natural temper of the finite and dependent we find creature, the spirit of faith. We find, accordingly, opposites of qualities are dwelt upon as the characteristics of the devil. III. The power of Satan over the soul is represented as exercised either directly or by his instruments. His direct influence over the soul is simply that of a powerful and evil nature on those in whom lurks the germ of the same evil. Besides this direct influence, we learn from Scripture that Satan is the leader of a host of evil spirits or angels who share his evil work, and for whom the "everlasting fire is prepared."

Mt 25:41

Of their origin and fall we know no more than of his. But one passage

Mt 12:24-26

--identifies them distinctly with the "demons" (Authorized Version "devils") who had power to possess the souls of men. They are mostly spoken of in Scripture in reference to possession; but in

Eph 6:12

find them sharing the enmity to God and are ascribed in various lights. We find them sharing the enmity to God and man implied in the name and nature of Satan; but their power and action are little dwelt upon in comparison with his. But the evil one is not merely the "prince of the demons;" he is called also the "prince of this world" in

Joh 12:31; 14:30; 16:11

and even the. "god of this world" in

2Co 4:4

the two expressions being united in

Eph 6:12

This power he claimed for himself, as the delegated authority, in the temptation of our Lord,

Lu 4:6

and the temptation would have been unreal had he spoken altogether falsely. The indirect action of Satan is best discerned by an examination of the title by which he is designated in Scripture. He is called emphatically ho diabolos, "the devil." The derivation of the word in itself implies only the endeavor to break the bonds between others and "set them at variance;" but common usage adds to this general sense the special idea of "setting at variance by slander." In the application of the title to Satan, both the general and special senses should be kept in view. His general object is to break the bonds of communion between God and man, and the bonds of truth and love which bind men to each other. The slander of God to man is best seen in the words of

Ge 3:4-5

They attribute selfishness and jealousy to the Giver of all good. The slander of man to God is illustrated by the book of Job.

Job 1:9-11; 2:4-5

IV. The method of satanic action upon the heart itself. It may be summed up in two words --temptation and possession. The subject of temptation is illustrated, not only by abstract statements, but also by the record of the temptations of Adam and of our Lord. It is expressly laid down, as in

Jas 1:2-4

that "temptation," properly so called, i.e. "trial," is essential to man, and is accordingly ordained for him and sent to him by God, as in

Ge 22:1

It is this tentability of man, even in his original nature, which is represented in Scripture as giving scope to the evil action of Satan. But in the temptation of a fallen nature Satan has a greater power. Every sin committed makes a man the "servant of sin" for the future,

Joh 8:34; Ro 6:16

it therefore creates in the spirit of man a positive tendency to evil which sympathizes with, and aids, the temptation of the evil one. On the subject of possession, see DEMONIACS.

See Demoniacs

See Verses Found in Dictionary


SATAN signifies an adversary or enemy, and is commonly applied in the Scriptures to the devil, or the chief of the fallen angels. By collecting the passages where Satan, or the devil, is mentioned, it may be concluded, that he fell from heaven with his company; that God cast him down from thence for the punishment of his pride; that by his envy and malice, sin, death, and all other evils came into the world; that, by the permission of God, he exercises a sort of government in the world over subordinate apostate angels like himself; that God makes use of him to prove good men, and chastise bad ones; that he is a lying spirit in the mouth of false prophets and seducers; that it is he, or his agents, that torment or possess men, and inspire them with evil designs, as when he suggested to David, the numbering of the people, to Judas to betray his Lord and Master, and to Ananias and Sapphira to conceal the price of their field; that he is full of rage like a roaring lion, and of subtlety like a serpent, to tempt, to betray, to destroy, and involve us in guilt and wickedness; that his power and malice are restrained within certain limits, and controlled by the will of God; in a word, that he is an enemy to God and man, and uses his utmost endeavours to rob God of his glory, and men of their souls. See DEVIL and See DEMONIACS.