1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
But Jesus answering said unto him, Permit it to be so now, for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he permitted him.
Think not that I am come to destroy the law and the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil.
Think not that I am come to destroy the law and the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil. For I tell you assuredly, that till heaven and earth pass away, not one iota, or the smallest stroke of a letter, shall pass from the law, until all things shall be accomplished.
For I tell you assuredly, that till heaven and earth pass away, not one iota, or the smallest stroke of a letter, shall pass from the law, until all things shall be accomplished.
For I tell you assuredly, that till heaven and earth pass away, not one iota, or the smallest stroke of a letter, shall pass from the law, until all things shall be accomplished. Whosoever therefore shall break one of the least of these commandments, and teach men so, he shall be accounted the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall practise, and teach them, he shall be reckoned great in the kingdom of heaven. read more. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness abounds more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven. Ye have heard that it was said to the men of antient times, "Thou shalt do no murder;" and whosoever shall commit murder, shall be liable to the judgment: but I say unto you, That every man who is angry with his brother without cause, shall be liable to the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be liable to the sanhedrim: but whosever shall say, Thou fool, shall be liable to be cast into hell fire. If therefore thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; leave there thy gift before the altar, and go: first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Be disposed to agree with thy prosecutor speedily, whilst thou art in the way with him [to the bar]; lest the prosecutor deliver thee up to the judge, and the judge commit thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt in no wise come out from thence, till thou hast paid the last farthing. Ye have heard that it was said to those of old, "Thou shalt not commit adultery:" but I say unto you, That every one who looketh upon a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. If then thine eye, the right, leads thee to offend, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is highly for thy advantage, that one of thy members be destroyed, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand leads thee to offend, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is highly thy interest that one of thy members should be destroyed, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. It hath been said indeed, That whosoever will put away his wife, let him give her a bill of divorce: But I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except on account of whoredom, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is put away, committeth adultery. Again ye have heard that it was said to those of old, "Thou shalt not perjure thyself, but shalt perform to the Lord thine oaths:" But I say to thee, Swear not at all; neither by the heaven; for it is the throne of God: nor by the earth; for it is the footstool of his feet: nor by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King: neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your discourse be, Yea, yea; No, no: for all addition to these is from the wicked one. Ye have heard that it was said, "Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth:" but I say unto you, Resist not an injurious act; but whosoever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him also the other. And if a man will prosecute thee, and take thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall press thee for one mile, go with him two. Give to him that asketh thee; and from him who wants to borrow of thee, turn not away. Ye have heard that it hath been said, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy." But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who treat you insolently, and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father who is in heaven: for he causeth his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and tendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. For if ye love those who love you, what reward have you? do not even the publicans the same thing? And if ye embrace your brethren only, what do ye extraordinary? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect, as your Father who is in heaven is perfect.
And it was so, that when Jesus had concluded all these sayings, the multitudes were exceedingly struck with his teaching:
And Jesus said to him, See thou tell no man; but go, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift which Moses commanded for a testimony unto them.
Or have ye not read in the law, that on the sabbaths the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are not culpable? Now I tell you, That one greater than the temple is here.
Then he said to them; What man of you is there who hath one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath, doth he not lay hold on him, and lift him out?
But if I by the Spirit of God cast out the devils, then truly the kingdom of God is come unto you. Else how can one enter into a strong man's house and plunder his goods, except he first bind the strong man, and then will he plunder his goods? read more. He that is not with me, is against me; and he that associates not with me, scattereth abroad.
The queen of the South shall rise up in judgment against the men of this generation, and condemn it: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
But he said in reply, I am not sent, save only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
But that we give them no offence, go unto the sea, and cast in a hook, and take the first fish which cometh up; and on opening his mouth, thou wilt find a stater, that take and give them for me and thee.
And the Pharisees came to him, tempting him, and saying, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? But he replying, said unto them, Have ye not read, that he who created them from the beginning, created them male and female? read more. And he said, for this reason shall a man forsake father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. Wherefore they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God hath yoked together, let no man separate. They say unto him, Why then did Moses command to give her a bill of divorce, and to put her away? He saith unto them, It was on account of the hardness of your hearts that Moses gave you permission to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not thus. And I tell you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, except for whoredom, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth the divorced woman, committeth adultery.
Even as the Son of man came not to be waited upon, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many.
But the Pharisees hearing that he had stopped the Sadducees' mouths, they assembled together: and one of them, a teacher of the law, put a question to him, to make trial of him, and said, read more. Master, which is the great commandment in the law? Then Jesus said to him, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind." This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like to it, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." On these two commandments, the whole law and the prophets depend.
for this is my blood, that [blood] of the new testament, which is shed for many, for the remission of sins.
And he was walking through the cornfields on the sabbath; and his disciples as they went on the road plucked the ears of corn. And the Pharisees said to him, See, why are they doing on the sabbath, what is not lawful? read more. And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did, when he was under necessity, and was hungry, himself and they who were with him? How he entered into the house of God to Abiathar the high-priest; and did eat the shewbread, which it was not lawful for any to eat except the priests, and he gave also to those who were with him? And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath.
And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath. Wherefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
And they watched him if he would cure him on the sabbath; that they might accuse him.
Now vainly do they worship me, while teaching doctrines the commandments of men." For leaving the command of God, ye adhere to the tradition of men, the washings of pots and cups; and many other such like things ye practise. read more. And he said to them, Strangely do ye make void the command of God, that ye may observe your tradition. For Moses said, "Honour thy father and thy mother:" and "he that curseth father or mother, let him assuredly be put to death." But ye affirm, If a man say to his father or mother, it is Corban (that is, a gift), which otherwise might have been advantageous to thee from me; then ye permit him no more to do any thing for his father, or his mother; abrogating the word of God by the tradition, which ye have transmitted down; and many such like things ye do. And he called to him all the multitude, and said unto them, hear me all of you, and understand. There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him, can make him unclean: but the things which come out from him, these are the things which make a man unclean. If any man hath ears to hear, let him hear. And when he was come into the house from the multitude, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. And he saith to them, Are ye also so defective of intelligence? Do you not consider, that every thing from without that entereth into a man, cannot make him unclean? because it entereth not into his heart, but into his belly, and goeth out into the vault, carrying off all the impurities of the food.
because it entereth not into his heart, but into his belly, and goeth out into the vault, carrying off all the impurities of the food. But, said he, what cometh out of a man, that makes a man unclean. read more. For from within out of the heart of men proceed wicked reasonings, adulteries, whoredoms, murders, thefts, inordinate cravings, mischievous actions, knavery, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, folly: all these wicked things come from within, and render a person unclean.
But he kept silence, and made them not a word of reply. Again the high-priest questioned him, and said to him, Art thou the Messiah, the Son of the blessed?
And when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising the child, his name also was called JESUS, the name imposed by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
And there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah: and unrolling the volume, he found the passage where it is written, "The spirit of the Lord is upon me, for the work whereunto he hath anointed me; he hath sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor; to heal the contrite in heart; to proclaim liberty to the captives; and restore sight to the blind; to send forth the bruised free from bonds; read more. to publish the acceptable year of the Lord." And rolling up the volume, he gave it to the attendant officer, and sat down. And the eyes of all who were in the synagogue were attentively fixed on him. And he began to say to them, To day this scripture is fulfilled in your ears.
And, behold, a certain doctor of the law arose, to make trial of him, saying, Master, by doing what shall I inherit eternal life? And he said unto him, What is written in the law? How readest thou? read more. And he answering said, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might, and with all thy understanding, and thy neighbour as thyself." And he said unto him, Thou hast answered rightly: this do, and thou shalt live. Then he, desirous to make himself appear a righteous person, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? Then Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among robbers, who, when they had both stripped him, and covered him with wounds, got off, leaving him half dead. And it so fell out, that a certain priest went down that way, and seeing him, he kept the opposite side of the road. And a Levite also, in the same way, being near the place, came, and seeing him, kept the opposite side of the road. But a certain Samaritan travelling, came by him, and seeing him, was moved with compassion, and coming up to him, bound up his wounds, after pouring on them oil and wine; then setting him on his own beast, he led him to an inn, and took particular care of him. And on the morrow, as he was departing, he took out of his purse two denarii, and gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, Take great care of him; and whatever farther expence may be incurred, when I return, I will repay thee. Which then of these three do you suppose to be the neighbour of him who fell into the robbers' hands? And he said, He that shewed mercy towards him. Then said Jesus to him, Go, and do thou exactly the same.
Now as he was speaking, a certain Pharisee invited him to dine with him; and going in with him, he sat down. But the Pharisee seeing it, marvelled, that he had not washed before dinner. read more. Then said the Lord unto him, Now ye Pharisees make the outside of the cup and of the dish clean, but your inward parts are full of extortion and wickedness. Ye senseless men! did not he who made that which is without, make also that which is within? But give what is within them for alms; and, lo! all will be pure unto you.
And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath-day? And when he had made this speech, all his opposers were covered with shame: and all the multitude rejoiced in all the glorious things which were done by him.
The law and the prophets were until John: since that the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.
For I tell you, that what hath already been written must be fulfilled in me, namely, "He was numbered with the transgressors:" for the things also concerning me draw to their period.
And beginning from Moses and all the prophets, he explained to them in all the scriptures, the things relating to himself.
For the law was given by Moses, but the grace and the reality came by Jesus Christ.
For the law was given by Moses, but the grace and the reality came by Jesus Christ.
And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, in like manner must the Son of man be lifted up:
And instantly the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked away: and that day was the sabbath. The Jews therefore said to him that was cured, It is the sabbath: it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed. read more. He answered them, He that made me whole, the same person said to me, Take up thy bed, and walk. Then they asked him, Who is the man that said to thee, Take up thy bed, and walk? Now he that was cured knew not who he was: for Jesus had slipped away, a crowd being on the spot. After these things Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said unto him, Take care; thou art made whole: sin no more, lest something worse befall thee. The man went, and informed the Jews, that it was Jesus who had made him whole. And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he had done these things on the sabbath-day. Then Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. Therefore sought they the more to kill him, because he had not only broken the sabbath, but called God his own Father, setting himself on an equality with God. Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing by himself, except what he hath seen the Father do: for whatsoever things he doeth, the same and in the same manner doth the Son. For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things which he himself doeth: and greater works than these will he shew him, that ye may wonder.
It is written in the prophets, And "they shall all be taught of God." Every one therefore who heareth from the Father, and learneth, cometh to me.
I am the bread that giveth life, which came down from heaven: if any person eat of this bread, he shall live to eternity; and the bread indeed which I shall give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Art thou greater than our father Abraham, who is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself?
Then said certain of the Pharisees, This man is not from God, because he observeth not the sabbath. Others said, How is it possible for a wicked man to do such miracles? And there was a division among them.
The second time therefore they called the man who had been blind, and said unto him, Give the glory to God: we know that this man is a sinner.
Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, "I said ye are gods?"
Then one particular person of them, Caiaphas, being the high-priest of that year, said unto them, Ye know nothing,
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat falling on the earth undergo a deathlike change, it abideth single: but if it [thus] die, it beareth abundant produce.
Then the multitude answered him, We have heard out of the law, that the Messiah abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, That the Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?
But it is in order that the word may be fulfilled which is written in their law, "They hated me without a cause."
The Jews replied to him, We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, because he hath made himself the Son of God.
Be it therefore known unto you, men and brethren, that through this man remission of sin is proclaimed to you:
WHAT then shall we say that Abraham our father hath obtained by the flesh? For if Abraham was justified by works, he hath cause for glorying; though not before God. read more. For what doth the scripture say? Abraham truly believed God, and it was imputed to him for righteousness. Now to him that worketh, the reward is not brought to account as a favour, but as a debt. But to him who doth not work, but believeth in him who justifieth the ungodly, his faith is reckoned in account for righteousness.
But the law was introduced, that the offence might be more abundant. But where sin had abounded, there hath grace abounded more exceedingly:
What then shall we say? Is the law sin? God forbid. Yea, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not even known concupiscence, unless the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. But sin, seizing the opportunity by the law, wrought in me all concupiscence. For without the law sin is dead. read more. For though I lived without the law formerly; yet when the commandment came, sin revived, but I died. And the commandment, which [was] for life, the same was found by me for death. For sin, seizing the occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and thereby slew me. So then the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
So then the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good. Did then that which is good become fatal to me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin by that which was good [in itself], was the cause of death to me; that sin through the commandment might become transcendantly sinful.
Did then that which is good become fatal to me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin by that which was good [in itself], was the cause of death to me; that sin through the commandment might become transcendantly sinful. For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am fleshly, sold under sin. read more. For that which I am doing I approve not: for not the thing which I wish, that do I practise; but the very thing I hate, that I do. But if what I would not, that I do, I concur with the law that it is excellent. Now then no more I do this, but sin dwelling in me. For I know that there dwelleth not in me (that is, in my flesh) any good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not. For I do not the good which I wish: but the evil which I would not, that I do. If then I do that which I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. I find then a law, that, when I wish to do good, evil is presented to me. For I am delighted with the law of God, as respecting the inward man: but I see another law in my members, militating against the law in my mind, and making me captive to the law of sin which is in my members. O wretched man, I! who shall pluck me from the body of this death?
For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath liberated me from the law of sin and of death. For that which was impossible by the law, inasmuch as it was impotent through the flesh, God having sent his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in that flesh:
But Israel, pursuing after the law of righteousness, hath not come up to the law of righteousness.
For being ignorant of the righteousness which is of God, and seeking to establish a righteousness of their own, they have not submitted to the righteousness of God.
But to the married not I command, but the Lord, That the wife be not separated from the husband:
but have renounced all shameful secret practices, not conducting ourselves with artifice, nor deceitfully disguising the word of God, but by clear manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience as in the presence of God.
For I through the law am dead to the law, that I should live unto God.
Is the law then contrary to the promises of God? God forbid. For if there had been a law given which was capable of procuring life, verily righteousness would have been by the law.
Wherefore the law was our conductor, as of children, to Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
NOW I affirm, that as long as the heir is an infant, he differeth nothing from a servant, though he be master of all; but is under tutors and trustees until the time fixed by his father. read more. So we also, when we were infants, were in bondage under the first elementary principles of the world: but when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son born of a woman, born under the law,
but when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son born of a woman, born under the law, that he might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.
Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ.
and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is by the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is by the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
Let no man juggle you out of your prize, voluntary in [his] humility and the worship of angels, intruding into things which he never saw, vainly puffed up by his carnal imagination;
And Moses indeed was faithful in all that house of his as a servant, to bear testimony of the things which should be after spoken;
which figurative representation [continues] unto the present time, according to which both gifts and sacrifices are offered, which cannot, with respect to conscience, make him perfect who performs the services,