6 occurrences in 6 dictionaries

Reference: Candlestick


In the tabernacle, the golden candlestick stood on the left hand of one entering the Holy Place, opposite the table of showbread. It consisted of a pedestal; an upright shaft; six arms, three on one side and three on the opposite side of the shaft; and seven lamps surmounting the shaft and arms. The arms were adorned with three kinds of carved ornaments, called cups, globes, and blossoms. Its lamps were supplied with pure olive oil, and lighted every evening, Ex 25:31-40; 30:7-8; 37:17-24; Le 24:1-3; 1Sa 3:3; 2Ch 13:11. In the first temple there were ten candelabra of pure gold, half of them standing on the north, and half on the south side, within the Holy Place, 1Ki 7:49-50; 2Ch 4:7; Jer 52:19. In the second temple there was but one, resembling that of the tabernacle. This was carried to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasian's temple to Peace, and copied on the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be seen. See the beautiful and significant visions of the candlestick by Zechariah and John, Zec 4:2-12; Re 1:12,20.

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the lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Ex 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight.

Illustration: Golden Candlestick and Shewbread

The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which, however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God, who are "the light of the world." The light which "symbolizes the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men, but furnished over and above nature."

This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy Place, opposite the table of shewbread (Ex 27:21; 30:7-8; Le 24:3; 1Sa 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Ex 25:38), and supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.

In Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place (1Ki 7:49; 2Ch 4:7). Their structure is not mentioned. They were carried away to Babylon (Jer 52:19).

In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally disappeared.

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Lampstand: menowrah. Exclusively that of the tabernacle made of a. talent of pure gold, symbolizing preciousness and sacredness and incorruptibility (Ex 25:31-39); of beaten work, 5 feet high and 3 1/2 between the outside branches, according to the rabbis. An upright central stem, with three branches on one side and three on the other, still to be seen represented on the arch of Titus at Rome, erected after his triumph over Jerusalem. On the central shaft were four almond shaped bowls, four round knops, and four flowers, i.e. 12 in all; on each of the six branches three bowls, three knops, and three flowers, i.e. 54 on the six, and adding the 12 of the shaft, 66 in all. Josephus counts 70, a mystical number, as was the seven, the number of branches, implying divine perfection. Aaron lit it each evening; in the morning it was allowed to go out, as 1Sa 3:3 proves; compare also 2Ch 13:11; Le 24:2-3, "from the evening unto the morning before the Lord continually."

It stood in the tabernacle "without the veil" that shut in the holiest. It illumined the table of shewbread obliquely (Josephus, Ant. 3:6, section 7). "To burn always" is explained by "from evening to morning" (Ex 27:20-21; 30:8). Aaron or his successor was "always" at the appointed time to light the lamp every evening, and dress it every morning with the golden snuffers, removing the snuff in golden dishes. The artificial light had to give place each morning to the light of the sun which rendered it needless, as the light of Old Testament ordinances gives place to the Sun of righteousness (Mal 4:2). Under the New Testament of the True Light, Christ Jesus, the seven separate candlesticks represent the churches or the church in its entirety (Re 1:12-13,20); no longer as the one Jewish church (represented by the one sevenfold candlestick), restricted to one outward unity and locality.

The several churches are mutually independent as to external ceremonies and government (provided all things are done to edification, and needless schisms are avoided), yet one in the unity of the Spirit and headship of Christ. The Gentile churches will not realize their unity until the Jewish church as the stem, unites all the lamps in one candlestick (Ro 11:16-24). Zechariah's candlestick (Zechariah 4) is prophetical of that final church which shall join in one all the earth under Messiah the King, reigning in Jerusalem as the spiritual center and rallying point of all (compare Zep 3:9; Zec 14:9,16-17; Jer 3:17). The candlestick is not the light, but bears it for the enlightening of all (Mt 5:16). The light is the Lord's (Php 2:15-16). The candlestick stands in the outer sanctuary, the type of the present dispensation on earth; but not in the inner holiest place, the type of the heavenly world wherein the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are both the temple and the light (Re 21:22-23).

In Re 2:5 "remove thy candlestick" threatens not extinction of the candle, but removal of the seat of the light elsewhere. In Re 11:4 "the two candlesticks" are connected with "the two witnesses," which Wordsworth identifies with the two Testaments; so they would represent the Old Testament and the New Testament churches. The olive oil represents the grace of the Holy Spirit flowing in God's appointed channels. In Solomon's temple there were ten golden candlesticks (1Ki 7:49; 2Ch 4:7). These were taken to Babylon (Jer 52:19). In the second temple, namely, Zerubbabel's, a single candlestick was again placed (Zec 4:2-6,11), taken by Titus from the temple as restored by Herod, and carried in his triumph at Rome and deposited in the Temple of Peace. Genseric 400 years later transferred it to Carthage.

Belisarius recovered it, and carried it to Constantinople, and then deposited it in the church of Jerusalem, A.D. 533. It has never since been heard of. In Joh 8:12, "I am the light of the world," there is allusion to the two colossal golden candlesticks lighted at the feast of tabernacles (which was then being held: Joh 7:2-37) after the evening sacrifice in one of the temple courts, and casting their beams on mount Olivet and on Jerusalem. Jesus coming to the temple at daybreak (Joh 8:1-2), as they were extinguishing the artificial lights in the face of the superior light of the rising sun, virtually says, "Your typical light is passing away, I am the Sun of righteousness, the True Light." (Joh 1:9).

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This, in scripture, signifies a lamp-stand, as is plainly implied in 2Ch 4:20: 'the candlesticks with their lamps,' used in the temple. A 'candlestick' is also mentioned in Belshazzar's palace, near which the fingers of a man's hand wrote upon the wall. Da 5:5. Except in large buildings, hand lamps were all that were needed.

THE GOLDEN CANDLESTICK in the Tabernacle and Temple with its seven lamps is minutely described in Ex 25:31-40: it is also called the 'pure candlestick.' It was situate in the holy place, and gave light over against the table of showbread. It might be thought from Ex 27:20 that the lamps were to be kept alight always, but this does not appear to be the sense of 'burn always.' It should rather be read 'burn continuously,' that is, every evening, for in the next verse it adds 'from evening to morning;' and in Ex 30:8 it distinctly says "when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even." In the morning they were allowed to go out. 1Sa 3:3: cf. also 2Ch 13:11. The candlestick was entirely of gold, signifying that which was divine in its nature, and was typical of Christ the true light, but to be reproduced in His people. Eph 5:8. The number of the lamps (seven) is also indicative of divine perfection.

The Candlestick that was in the temple in the time of the Lord was carried away at the siege of Jerusalem, and is portrayed on the triumphal 'Arch of Titus' at Rome, but as fabulous animals are depicted on its base it is very questionable whether it is a true representation.

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which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described

Ex 25:31-37; 37:17-24

It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps. With its various appurtenances it required a talent of "pure gold;" and it was not moulded, but "of beaten work," and has been estimated to have been worth in our money over $25,000. From the Arch of Titus, where the sculptured the spoils taken from Jerusalem, we learn that it consisted of a central stem, with six branches, three on each side. It was about five feet high. [See ARCH OF TITUS] The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread,

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Ex 25:37

and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning.

Ex 27:20-21; 30:8

comp. 1Sam 3:2 Each lamp was supplied with cotton and about two wineglasses of the purest olive oil, which was sufficient to keep it burning during a long night. In Solomon's temple, instead of or in addition to this candlestick there were ten golden candlesticks similarly embossed, five in the right and five on the left.

1Ki 7:49; 2Ch 4:7

They were taken to Babylon.

Jer 52:19

In the temple of Zerubbabel there was again a single candlestick. 1Macc 1:21: 4:49.

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CANDLESTICK. The instrument so rendered by our translators was more properly a stand for lamps. One of beaten gold was made by Moses, Ex 25:31-32, and put into the tabernacle in the holy place, over against the table of shew bread. The basis of this candlestick was also of pure gold; it had seven branches, three on each side, and one in the middle. When Solomon had built the temple, he was not satisfied with placing one golden candlestick there, but had ten put up, of the same form and metal with that described by Moses, five on the north, and five on the south side of the holy place, 1Ki 7:49. After the Jews returned from their captivity, the golden candlestick was again placed in the temple, as it had been before in the tabernacle by Moses. The lamps were kept burning perpetually; and were supplied morning and evening with pure olive oil. Josephus says, that after the Romans had destroyed the temple, the several things which were found within it, were carried in triumph to Rome, namely, the golden table, and the golden candlestick with seven branches. These were lodged in the temple built by Vespasian, and consecrated to Peace; and at the foot of Mount Palatine, there is a triumphal arch still visible, upon which Vespasian's triumph is represented, and the several monuments which were carried publicly in the procession are engraved, and among the rest the candlestick with the seven branches, which are still discernible upon it. In Re 1:12,20, mention is made of seven golden candlesticks, which are said to be emblems of the seven Christian churches.

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