Reference: Romans, The Epistle To The
AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2Pe 3:15-16) quotes Ro 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Ro 1:29-32 and Ro 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Ro 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Ga 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Ro 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Ro 8:19-22; 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Ro 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Ro 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Ro 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Ro 12:1,21; 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Ro 2:6,29; 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it.
DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Ro 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Ro 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1Co 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2Ti 4:20; Ac 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Ro 16:27); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Ro 15:25-27; compare Ac 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Ac 24:17; 1Co 16:4; 2Co 8:1-2; 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Ro 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Ac 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece.
He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Ac 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles.
OCCASION. Intending long to visit Rome and Spain (Ro 1:9-13; 15:22-29), he was for the present unable, being bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians. But, as Phoebe a deaconess of the neighbouring Cenchreae was starting for Rome (Ro 16:1-2), he sends meantime this epistle by her. Tertius wrote it at his dictation (Ro 16:22), the apostle with his own hand, as in other epistles, probably adding the benediction and abrupt doxology at the close. Had Peter or any other apostle founded the church at Rome, some allusion to him would have occurred in this epistle or in Paul's epistles written at Rome. Moreover Paul's rule was not to build on another's foundation (Ro 15:20). Also in dividing the field of labour between himself and Peter (Ga 2:7-9), as apostle of the Gentiles he claims the Romans as his share (Ro 1:13) and hopes to confer some "spiritual gift" (charism) on them to establish them; implying that heretofore no apostle had been with them to do so (Ro 1:11; compare Ac 8:14-17).
The date of the introduction of Christianity at Rome must have been very early. Andronicus and Junia were "in Christ" even before Paul. Probably of the Roman strangers or pilgrim sojourners at Jerusalem (Ac 2:10) who heard Peter's sermon at Pentecost, some were among the converts, and brought back the gospel to the metropolis. (See RUFUS.) In this sense Peter founded the church at Rome, though having never yet visited it. The constant contact between Judaea and Rome through commerce, the passing of soldiers back and forward from Caesarea, and the repairing of Jewish settlers at Rome to Jerusalem for the three great feasts, ensured an early entrance of the gospel into Rome. Hence too at first the church there had that tinge of Judaism which this epistle corrects. Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Ro 11:13). A considerable number saluted in Romans 16 were Jew-Christians: Mary, Aquila, Priscilla, Andronicus and Junia, Paul's kinsmen, Herodion, Apelles, Aristobulus (of the Herodian family).
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg. ad Caium, 568). That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Ro 1:5,13; 9:3-4; 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Ro 11:23,25,30. But the Gentiles of this church were not Latin, but Greek. The literature of the early Roman church was written in Greek; the names of its bishops are almost all Greek. The early Latin versions of the New Testament were made for the provinces, especially Africa, nor Rome. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews. Julia (of the imperial household), Amplias, and Urbanus, are the few exceptions.
The Greeks were the most enterprising and intelligent of the middle and lower classes at Rome. Juvenal alludes satirically to their numbers and versatility (iii. 60-80; vi. 184); their intellectual restlessness made them sit loosely to traditional superstitions, and to be more open than others to inquire into the claims of Christianity. Many of the names (Romans 16) are found in the lists of freedmen and slaves of the early Roman emperors, "they of Caesar's household" (Php 4:22). (See PALACE.) From the lower and middle classes, petty tradesmen, merchants, and army officers, the gospel gradually worked upward; still "not many wise ... mighty ... noble were called" (1Co 1:26). The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Ro 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. Accordingly, the epistle has the character of a general treatise.
The metropolitan church was the fittest one to whom to address such a general exposition of doctrine, at the same time the injunction of obedience to temporal rulers was appropriate at the head quarters of the imperial government (Ro 13:1). The epistles to Corinthians and Galatians, immediately preceding chronologically, are full of personal references. The epistle to the Romans summarizes what he had just written; namely, epistle to Corinthians representing the attitude of the gospel to the Gentile world, the epistle to Galatians its relation to Judaism. What was in these two epistles immediately drawn out by special Judaizing errors of the Galatians, and Gentile licence of the Corinthians, is in Romans methodically combined together add arranged for general application.
The doctrine of justification by faith only on the one hand is stated (Romans 1-5) as in Galatians; on the other antinomianism is condemned (Romans 6); and the avoidance of giving offence as to meats (Romans 14) answers to 1Co 6:12, etc., 1Co 8:1, etc. Alexandrinus manuscript transposes the doxology Ro 16:25-27 (which Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts keep as KJV) to the close of Romans 14. Probably the epistle was circulated in two forms, both with and without the two last chapters. The form without them removed the personal allusions which manuscript G still more divested it
Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya about Gyrene, Roman residents, Jews and proselytes,
Now when the apostles, who were in Jerusalem, heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John; who, when they had gone down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit. read more. For he had not yet fallen on any of them; only they had been immersed into the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit.
When these things had been accomplished, Paul purposed in spirit to go to Jerusalem, after he should pass through Macedonia and Achaia, saying: After I have been there, I must see Rome also. So, having sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, he remained for a time in Asia.
For Paul had determined to sail past Ephesus, that he might not spend time in Asia; for he hastened, that, if it were possible for him, he might be in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.
And now, behold, I am going, bound in spirit, to Jerusalem, not knowing what shall befall me there,
But, after many years, I came to bring charitable gifts to my nation, and offerings.
PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, which he formerly promised through his prophets in the holy scriptures, read more. concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the posterity of David according to the flesh, but declared to be the Son of God with power, according to his holy spiritual nature, by his resurrection from the dead, through whom we have received grace and apostleship, in order to the obedience of faith among all nations, for the honor of his name,
through whom we have received grace and apostleship, in order to the obedience of faith among all nations, for the honor of his name, among whom are you also the called of Jesus Christ, read more. to all that are in Rome, be loved of God, called saints: Grace be to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
to all that are in Rome, be loved of God, called saints: Grace be to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. First, I thank my God, through Jesus Christ, on account of you all, because your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. read more. For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that, without ceasing, I make mention of you,
For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that, without ceasing, I make mention of you, always in my prayers making request, that, if possible, I may at length have a prosperous journey, by the will of God to come to you.
always in my prayers making request, that, if possible, I may at length have a prosperous journey, by the will of God to come to you. For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, in order that you may be established;
For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, in order that you may be established;
For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, in order that you may be established; that is, that I may both give and receive com fort, while I am among you, through our common faith.
that is, that I may both give and receive com fort, while I am among you, through our common faith. But, brethren, I do not wish you to be ignorant that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered to the present time, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
But, brethren, I do not wish you to be ignorant that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered to the present time, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
But, brethren, I do not wish you to be ignorant that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered to the present time, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
But, brethren, I do not wish you to be ignorant that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered to the present time, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles. I am a debtor both to the Greeks and to the barbarians; both to the wise and to the unwise. read more. So that, as far as I am able, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also, who are in Rome.
So that, as far as I am able, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also, who are in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the Gospel: for it is the power of God in order to salvation, to every one that believes, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. read more. For in it God's plan of justifying men by faith is revealed, in order to faith: as it is written, He that is justified by faith, shall live.
(for, since the creation of the world, his attributes, which are invisible, are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, both his eternal power and divinity,) that they may be without excuse;
(for, since the creation of the world, his attributes, which are invisible, are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, both his eternal power and divinity,) that they may be without excuse; because, when they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, nor were they thankful; but they became perverse in their reasonings, and their wicked heart was darkened; read more. professing to be wise, they became foolish, and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image like corruptible man, and birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. For which reason God delivered them up, in the desires of their hearts, to uncleanness, that they might dishonor their bodies among themselves;
For which reason God delivered them up, in the desires of their hearts, to uncleanness, that they might dishonor their bodies among themselves; who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. read more. For this reason, God delivered them over to vile passions: for their females exchanged their natural use for that which is against nature:
as they were filled with all unrighteousness, lewdness, wickedness, covetousness, malice; full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, malignity; whisperers, evil-speakers, haters of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents; read more. without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful; who, acknowledging the judgment of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but approve those who practice them.
Or, do you despise the riches of his goodness, and his forbearance, and his long suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance?
who will render to every man according to his works;
but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God.
What advantage then has the Jew, or what profit has circumcision? Much in every respect; but chiefly that the oracles of God were intrusted to them. read more. What, indeed, if some have been unfaithful? Will their unfaithfulness overthrow the faithfulness of God? It can not be. But let God be true, though every man be a liar, as it is written: That thou mightest be justified in thy words, and mightest overcome when thou art judged. But if our unrighteousness causes God's plan of justifying men to be better known, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous, who inflicts punishment? I speak as a man. It can not be: for if so, how shall God judge the world? Yet, if the truth of God has, through my lie, been greatly advanced to his glory, why am I still judged as a sinner? Then, why not say, (as we are slanderously reported as saying, and, as some affirm, that we do say,) Let us do evil, that good may come? Of such persons the condemnation is just. What then? Do we, Jews, excel? Not at all: for we have already convicted all, both Jews and Greeks, of being under sin, as it is written: There is none righteous, no, not one; there is none that understands; there is none that seeks after God; they have all turned out of the way; they have alike become unprofitable; there is none that does good, not even one; their throat is an open sepulcher; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips; their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet. are swift to shed blood; destruction and misery are in their ways; and the way of peace they have not known; there is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that what the law says, it speaks- to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world become guilty before God. Wherefore, by works of law, no flesh shall be justified in his sight; for by law is the knowledge of sin. But now, God's plan of justifying men without law is revealed, being attested by the law and the prophets; I repeat it, God's plan of justifying men through faith in Jesus Christ, which is for all, and on all that believe; for there is no difference; for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God, yet may be justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; whom God has set forth as a propitiatory sacrifice, through faith in his blood, in order to manifest his righteousness, in passing by the sins that were formerly committed through the forbearance of God; in order to manifest his righteousness at the present time, that he might be just, while he justifies him who believes in Jesus. Where, then, is boasting? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No; but by the law of faith. For we conclude that a man is justified by faith, without deeds of law. Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also the God of the Gen tiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also: since there is one God, who will justify the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through the faith. Do we, then, make law void through the faith? It can not be. On the other hand, we establish law.
Under what circumstances, then, was it counted? After he was circumcised? Or, while he was uncircumcised? Not after he was circumcised, but while he was uncircumcised. And he received the sign of circumcision, as a seal of the righteousness of the faith that he had while he was uncircumcised, in order that he might be the father of all that believe, even in a state of uncircumcision, so that righteousness might be counted to them also;
Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have had access, by faith, into this grace in which we stand; and we rejoice in hope of the glory of God. read more. And not only so, but we rejoice in afflictions also; because we know that affliction produces patience, and patience, an approved character, and an approved character, hope; and this hope disappoints us not; because the love of God is poured abundantly into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that is given to us. For when we were yet without strength, at the appointed time, Christ died for the ungodly. For hardly, in deed, will one die for a just man; yet, perhaps, for the good man some one would even dare to die. But God makes known his love to us in this, that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us: much more, then, since we are now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from the wrath through him. For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved by his life. And not only so, but we rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation. For this reason, as by one man sin entered into the world, and by his sin, death; and so death passed through to all men, because all have sinned: for till the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged where there is no law.
for till the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that did not sin in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the type of him that was to come.
Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that did not sin in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the type of him that was to come. But the favor bestowed is not, in all respects, like the offense: for if, by the offense of one, the many have died, much more have the grace of God and the gift which is by the grace of the one man Jesus Christ, been made abundant for the many. read more. And the gift is not like the sentence that came through one who sinned: for the sentence to condemnation was because of one offense; but the favor bestowed in order to justification, is because of many offenses. For if, by one man's offense, death has reigned through that one, much more shall those who receive the abundance of the grace, and of the gift of righteousness, reign in life through the one, who is Jesus Christ. Therefore, as, by one offense, sentence came on all men to condemnation, so, also, by one act of righteousness, the gift has come on all men to justification of life. For as by the disobedience of the one man the many have been made sinners, so, also, by the obedience of the one, the many shall be made righteous. But, besides the first offense, law was introduced, in order that offenses might abound: but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound: that as sin has reigned, ending in death, so might grace reign by justification, ending in life eternal, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he that raised the Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies, because of his Spirit that dwells in you.
For I consider the sufferings of the present time not worthy to be compared with the glory that shall be revealed for us. For the earnest expectation of the creature waits for the revelation of the sons of God. read more. For the creature was subject to frailty, (not by its own will, but for his sake who subjected it,) in hope, that even the creature itself shall be made free from the bondage of corruption, and introduced into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that every creature groans, and is in pain together, till now:
for I could wish my self to be accursed from Christ, for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh; who are Israelites, to whom belong the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service, and the promises;
Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they may be saved.
For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek; for the same Lord of all is rich to all that call on him:
For I speak to you, Gentiles; inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I do honor to my ministry,
And they, also, if they continue not in unbelief, shall be grafted in: for God is able to graft them in again.
For I do not wish you, brethren, to be ignorant of this mystery lest you be wise in your own conceit that blindness has happened to Israel in part, till the full number of the Gen tiles shall have come in.
For as you formerly did not believe God, but now have obtained mercy through their unbelief;
I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.
Be not overcome by evil; but overcome evil with good.
Let every soul be subject to the higher authorities. For there is no authority but from God: the authorities that are, have been appointed by God.
Render, therefore, to all their dues; tribute, to whom tribute is due; custom, to whom custom; fear, to whom fear; honor, to whom honor is due. Owe no one any thing, except to love one another; for he that loves another, has fulfilled the law.
But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you despise your brother? For we all shall stand before the judgment-seat of the Christ. For it is written: As I live, says the Lord, to me every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall confess to God. read more. Therefore, every one of us shall give an account of himself to God.
And I myself am persuaded concerning you, my brethren, that you yourselves are full of all goodness, having been filled with all knowledge, able also to instruct one another. Yet I have written to you more boldly in part, my brethren, as if I would put you in remembrance, on account of the grace which is given to me by God, read more. that I may be the public servant of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, officiating as a priest with respect to the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles may be acceptable, having been sanctified by the Holy Spirit. I have, therefore, cause to glory in Christ Jesus in things that pertain to God. For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ has not accomplished through me, by word and deed, in order to make the Gentiles obedient, by the power of signs and wonders by the power of the Holy Spirit. So that from Jerusalem, and round about as far as Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of the Christ; so earnestly desirous have I been to preach the gospel, not where Christ had been named, lest I should build on another man's foundation;
so earnestly desirous have I been to preach the gospel, not where Christ had been named, lest I should build on another man's foundation; but, as it is written: They to whom he was not preached, shall see; and they who have not heard, shall understand. read more. For which reason, also, I have been often hindered from coming to you.
For which reason, also, I have been often hindered from coming to you. But now, having no longer a place in these regions, and having had for many years a strong desire to come to you,
But now, having no longer a place in these regions, and having had for many years a strong desire to come to you,
But now, having no longer a place in these regions, and having had for many years a strong desire to come to you, when I make my journey into Spain, I hope, in passing through, to see you, and to be conducted by you on my journey thither, after I am first partly satisfied with your company.
when I make my journey into Spain, I hope, in passing through, to see you, and to be conducted by you on my journey thither, after I am first partly satisfied with your company.
when I make my journey into Spain, I hope, in passing through, to see you, and to be conducted by you on my journey thither, after I am first partly satisfied with your company. But now I am going to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints. For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor saints who are in Jerusalem:
For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor saints who are in Jerusalem:
For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor saints who are in Jerusalem: they have been pleased to do so, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have become partakers of their spiritual things, they ought to minister to them in things pertaining to the flesh.
they have been pleased to do so, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have become partakers of their spiritual things, they ought to minister to them in things pertaining to the flesh.
they have been pleased to do so, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have become partakers of their spiritual things, they ought to minister to them in things pertaining to the flesh. When, therefore, I shall have performed this, and have delivered to them this fruit, I will go by you into Spain.
When, therefore, I shall have performed this, and have delivered to them this fruit, I will go by you into Spain. And I know that in coming to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.
And I know that in coming to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ. Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me, in your prayers to God for me, read more. that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea, and that this service of mine, which is for Jerusalem, may be acceptable to the saints; that I may come to you with joy, by the will of God, and may be refreshed among you. The God of peace be with you all. Amen.
I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a deaconess of the church that is in Cenchrea,
I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a deaconess of the church that is in Cenchrea, that you receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of saints, and that you aid her in whatever matter she may have need of you; for she has aided many, and myself also.
that you receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of saints, and that you aid her in whatever matter she may have need of you; for she has aided many, and myself also.
I, Tertius, who wrote this letter, salute you in the Lord. Gains, my host, and the host of the whole church, salutes you. Erastus the treasurer of the city, and Quartus, my brother, salute you.
Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel, even the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was concealed during the times of the ages, but is now made manifest, and through the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, made known among all nations for the obedience of faith, read more. to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be glory throughout the ages. Amen.
to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be glory throughout the ages. Amen.
I thank God that I immersed none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;
For you see your calling, brethren, that not many wise men according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble call you;
All meats are lawful for me: but all are not profitable. All are lawful for me; but I will not be brought under subjection by any.
Now, with respect to meats offered to idols, we know, (for we all have knowledge: knowledge puffs up with pride, but love edifies.
but; on the other hand, seeing that I was intrusted with the gospel of the uncircumcision, as Peter was with that of the circumcision, (for he who gave efficiency to Peter, for the apostleship of the circumcision, gave efficiency to me also, as an apostle for the Gentiles,) read more. and knowing the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles, but they to the circumcision,
This only I wish to learn of you: Did you receive the Spirit by works of law, or by the hearing of faith? Are you so thoughtless? After having begun in Spirit, do you make an end in flesh?
PAUL, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints that are in Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus:
All the saints salute you, especially those who are of Caesar's household.
Erastus remained at Corinth. I left Trophimus sick at Miletus.
and count the long-suffering of our Lord, salvation, even as our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, has written to you; as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction.